• Publications of Kenneth C. Land

      • Books

          • Y Zeng, KC Land, D Gu and Z Wang.
          • (2013).
          • Household and Living Arrangement Projections The Extended Cohort-Component Method and Applications to the U.S. and China.
          • Springer Science & Business Media.
          Publication Description

          The Extended Cohort-Component Method and Applications to the U.S. and China Yi Zeng, Kenneth C Land, Danan Gu, ... Chapter 6 Household and Living Arrangement Projections at the Small Area Level 6.1 Basic Concepts to Apply the  ...

          • Y Yang and KC Land.
          • (2013).
          • Age-Period-Cohort Analysis New Models, Methods, and Empirical Applications.
          • CRC Press.
          Publication Description

          Age-Period-Cohort Analysis: New Models, Methods, and Empirical Applications is based on a decade of the authors’ collaborative work in age-period-cohort (APC) analysis.

          • Land, KC.
          • (2012).
          • The Well-Being of America's Children.
          • Springer.
          Publication Description

          This volume attests to that evolution, and what the CWI promises for understanding the progress – or lack of progress – in enhancing the life prospects of all American children.

          • Kenneth C. Land (ed.).
          • (2012).
          • The Well-Being of America’s Children: Developing and Improving the Child and Youth Well-Being Index.
          • New York: Springer.
          • P Wilcox, KC Land and SA Hunt.
          • (2003).
          • Criminal Circumstance: A Dynamic Multicontextual Criminal Opportunity Theory.
          • New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
          • KC Land and SH Schneider.
          • (1987).
          • Forecasting in the social and natural sciences..
          • Boston: D. Reidel Publishing Company.
          Publication Description

          The 14 papers in the volume are arranged in sections that: 1) describe the organizational and political context of applied forecasting; 2) review the state-of-the-art for many forecasting models and methods; and 3) discuss issues of predictability, the implications of forecast errors, and model construction, linkage and verification. Most of the aspects covered are in the field of social phenomena, eg: econometrics, aggregate economic-demographic models, population projects, health status, and technological innovation and diffusion. The papers are abstracted separately with the original journal citations. -M.A.Bass

          • KC Land, SH Schneider and SRCUS Social.
          • (1987).
          • Forecasting in the social and natural sciences.
          • D Reidel Pub Co.
          • KC Land and A Rogers.
          • (1982).
          • Multidimensional Mathematical Demography.
          • NewYork: Academic Press, Studies in Population Series.
          • FT Juster and KC Land.
          • (1981).
          • Social Accounting Systems: Essays on the State of the Art.
          • New York: Academic Press, Studies in Population Series.
          • KC Land and S Spilerman.
          • (1975).
          • Social Indicator Models.
          • New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
      • Journal Articles

          • H Zheng, Y Yang and KC Land.
          • (2011).
          • Variance Function Regression in Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort Models: Applications to the Study of Self-Reported Health.
          • AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW
          • ,
          • 76
          • (6)
          • ,
          • 955-983.
          • [web]
          • LR Landerman, SA Mustillo and KC Land.
          • (2011).
          • MODELING REPEATED MEASURES OF DICHOTOMOUS DATA: Testing Whether the Within-Person Trajectory of Change Varies Across Levels of Between-Person Factors..
          • Soc Sci Res
          • ,
          • 40
          • (5)
          • ,
          • 1456-1464.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          In this paper, we consider the following question for the analysis of data obtained in longitudinal panel designs: How should repeated-measures data be modeled and interpreted when the outcome or dependent variable is dichotomous and the objective is to determine whether the within-person rate of change over time varies across levels of one or more between-person factors? Standard approaches address this issue by means of generalized estimating equations or generalized linear mixed models with logistic links. Using an empirical example and simulated data, we show (1) that cross-level product terms from these models can produce misleading results with respect to whether the within-person rate of change varies across levels of a dichotomous between-person factor; and (2) that subgroup differences in the rate of change should be assessed on an additive scale (using group differences in the effects of predictors on the probability of disease) rather than on a multiplicative scale (using group differences in the effects of predictors on the odds of disease). Because usual approaches do not provide a significance test for whether the rate of additive change varies across levels of a between-person factor, sample differences in the rate of additive change may be due to sampling error. We illustrate how standard software can be used to estimate and test whether additive changes vary across levels of a between-person factor.

          • KC Land, VL Lamb and H Zheng.
          • (2011).
          • How are the Kids Doing? How do We Know? Recent Trends in Child and Youth Well-Being in the United States and Some International Comparisons.
          • SOCIAL INDICATORS RESEARCH
          • ,
          • 100
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 463-477.
          • [web]
          • H Zheng, Y Yang and KC Land.
          • (2011).
          • Heterogeneity in the Strehler-Mildvan general theory of mortality and aging..
          • Demography
          • ,
          • 48
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 267-290.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          This study examines and further develops the classic Strehler-Mildvan (SM) general theory of mortality and aging. Three predictions from the SM theory are tested by examining the age dependence of mortality patterns for 42 countries (including developed and developing countries) over the period 1955-2003. By applying finite mixture regression models, principal component analysis, and random-effects panel regression models, we find that (1) the negative correlation between the initial adulthood mortality rate and the rate of increase in mortality with age derived in the SM theory exists but is not constant; (2) within the SM framework, the implied age of expected zero vitality (expected maximum survival age) also is variable over time; (3) longevity trajectories are not homogeneous among the countries; (4) Central American and Southeast Asian countries have higher expected age of zero vitality than other countries in spite of relatively disadvantageous national ecological systems; (5) within the group of Central American and Southeast Asian countries, a more disadvantageous national ecological system is associated with a higher expected age of zero vitality; and (6) larger agricultural and food productivities, higher labor participation rates, higher percentages of population living in urban areas, and larger GDP per capita and GDP per unit of energy use are important beneficial national ecological system factors that can promote survival. These findings indicate that the SM theory needs to be generalized to incorporate heterogeneity among human populations.

          • PL McCall, KC Land and KF Parker.
          • (2011).
          • Heterogeneity in the rise and decline of city-level homicide rates, 1976-2005. A latent trajectory analysis.
          • SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH
          • ,
          • 40
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 363-378.
          • [web]
          • PL McCall, KC Land and KF Parker.
          • (2010).
          • An Empirical Assessment of What We Know About Structural Covariates of Homicide Rates: A Return to a Classic 20 Years Later.
          • HOMICIDE STUDIES
          • ,
          • 14
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 219-243.
          • [web]
          • AM Kulminski, I Culminskaya, SV Ukraintseva, KG Arbeev, KC Land and AI Yashin.
          • (2010).
          • Beta2-adrenergic receptor gene polymorphisms as systemic determinants of healthy aging in an evolutionary context..
          • Mech Ageing Dev
          • ,
          • 131
          • (5)
          • ,
          • 338-345.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          The Gln(27)Glu polymorphism but not the Arg(16)Gly polymorphism of the beta2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene appears to be associated with a broad range of aging-associated phenotypes, including cancers at different sites, myocardial infarction (MI), intermittent claudication (IC), and overall/healthy longevity in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort. The Gln(27)Gln genotype increases risks of cancer, MI and IC, whereas the Glu(27) allele or, equivalently, the Gly(16)Glu(27) haplotype tends to be protective against these diseases. Genetic associations with longevity are of opposite nature at young-old and oldest-old ages highlighting the phenomenon of antagonistic pleiotropy. The mechanism of antagonistic pleiotropy is associated with an evolutionary-driven advantage of carriers of a derived Gln(27) allele at younger ages and their survival disadvantage at older ages as a result of increased risks of cancer, MI and IC. The ADRB2 gene can play an important systemic role in healthy aging in evolutionary context that warrants exploration in other populations.

          • AM Kulminski, IV Culminskaya, SV Ukraintseva, KG Arbeev, I Akushevich, KC Land and AI Yashin.
          • (2010).
          • Polymorphisms in the ACE and ADRB2 genes and risks of aging-associated phenotypes: the case of myocardial infarction..
          • Rejuvenation Res
          • ,
          • 13
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 13-21.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          Multiple functions of the beta2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genes warrant studies of their associations with aging-related phenotypes. We focus on multimarker analyses and analyses of the effects of compound genotypes of two polymorphisms in the ADRB2 gene, rs1042713 and rs1042714, and 11 polymorphisms of the ACE gene, on the risk of such an aging-associated phenotype as myocardial infarction (MI). We used the data from a genotyped sample of the Framingham Heart Study Offspring (FHSO) cohort (n = 1500) followed for about 36 years with six examinations. The ADRB2 rs1042714 (C-->G) polymorphism and two moderately correlated (r(2) = 0.77) ACE polymorphisms, rs4363 (A-->G) and rs12449782 (A-->G), were significantly associated with risks of MI in this aging cohort in multimarker models. Predominantly linked ACE genotypes exhibited opposite effects on MI risks, e.g., the AA (rs12449782) genotype had a detrimental effect, whereas the predominantly linked AA (rs4363) genotype exhibited a protective effect. This trade-off occurs as a result of the opposite effects of rare compound genotypes of the ACE polymorphisms with a single dose of the AG heterozygote. This genetic trade-off is further augmented by the selective modulating effect of the rs1042714 ADRB2 polymorphism. The associations were not altered by adjustment for common MI risk factors. The results suggest that effects of single specific genetic variants of the ADRB2 and ACE genes on MI can be readily altered by gene-gene or/and gene-environmental interactions, especially in large heterogeneous samples. Multimarker genetic analyses should benefit studies of complex aging-associated phenotypes.

          • J Lee, VL Lamb and KC Land.
          • (2009).
          • Composite Indices of Changes in Child and Youth Well-Being in the San Francisco Bay Area and the State of California, 1995-2005.
          • CHILD INDICATORS RESEARCH
          • ,
          • 2
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 353-373.
          • [web]
          • ML Ta, SW Marshall, JS Kaufman, D Loomis, C Casteel and KC Land.
          • (2009).
          • Area-Based Socioeconomic Characteristics of Industries at High Risk for Violence in the Workplace.
          • AMERICAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY
          • ,
          • 44
          • (3-4)
          • ,
          • 249-260.
          • [web]
          • KC Land, TRHC Jr and H Zheng.
          • (2009).
          • THE SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF EXECUTIONS ON HOMICIDES: DETERRENCE, DISPLACEMENT, OR BOTH?.
          • CRIMINOLOGY
          • ,
          • 47
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 1009-1043.
          • [web]
          • AM Kulminski, KG Arbeev, SV Ukraintseva, IV Culminskaya, K Land and AI Yashin.
          • (2008).
          • Changes in health status among participants of the Framingham Heart Study from the 1960s to the 1990s: application of an index of cumulative deficits..
          • Ann Epidemiol
          • ,
          • 18
          • (9)
          • ,
          • 696-701.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          PURPOSE: Health of the general population is improving along a number of major health dimensions. Using a cumulative deficits approach, we investigated whether such improvements were evident at the level of minor health traits. METHODS: We selected 37 small-effect traits consistently measured in the 9th (performed in 1964) and 14th (1974) Framingham Heart and 5th (1991-1995) Offspring Study exams to construct indices of cumulative deficits (DIs). RESULTS: We identified deficits-specific DIs characterizing health dimensions associated with no health changes (DI(NHC)), health worsening (DI(WRS)), and health improving (DI(IMP)) between the 1960s and 1990s. The risks of death attributable to the DI(NHC) dominate within shorter time horizons. For longer time horizons, both the DI(NHC) and DI(IMP) provide the same contribution to the risks of death. The mortality risks associated with the DI(WRS) are the weakest and least significant. CONCLUSIONS: The analyses show that the cumulative deficits approach might be an efficient tool for analyzing the effects of a large number of health characteristics for which the individual effects are small, inconsistent, or non-significant. They show favorable trends such that health of the Framingham studies participants either did not change or improved over time for the most serious small-effect traits.

          • Y Yang, S Schulhofer-Wohl, WJ Fu and KC Land.
          • (May, 2008).
          • The intrinsic estimator for age-period-cohort analysis: What it is and how to use it.
          • AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY
          • ,
          • 113
          • (6)
          • ,
          • 1697-1736.
          • [web]
          • AM Kulminski, SV Ukraintseva, IV Kulminskaya, KG Arbeev, K Land and AI Yashin.
          • (2008).
          • Cumulative deficits better characterize susceptibility to death in elderly people than phenotypic frailty: lessons from the Cardiovascular Health Study..
          • J Am Geriatr Soc
          • ,
          • 56
          • (5)
          • ,
          • 898-903.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          OBJECTIVES: To compare how well frailty measures based on a phenotypic frailty approach proposed in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and a cumulative deficits approach predict mortality. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: The main cohort of the CHS. PARTICIPANTS: Four thousand seven hundred twenty-one individuals. MEASUREMENTS: A phenotypic frailty index (PFI) was defined in the same way as proposed in the CHS: assessing weight loss, exhaustion, low physical activity, slowness, and poor grip strength. A cumulative deficit index (DI) was defined based on 48 elderly deficits (signs, symptoms, impairments, diseases) included in the index, with equal weights. RESULTS: Of the 1,073 frailest individuals with the lowest survival, the PFI, categorized as proposed in the CHS into robust, prefrail, and frail categories, underestimated the risk of death for 720 persons, whereas the DI categorized into the same three frailty categories underestimated the mortality risk for 134 persons. The higher power of the DI for discriminating frail individuals in their susceptibility to death also followed from comparison of quasi-instantaneous values of both indices. The three-level DI identified 219 individuals as frail of 361 individuals identified as frail according to the three-level PFI. CONCLUSION: The DI can more precisely evaluate chances of death because it assesses a broader spectrum of disorders than the PFI. Both indices appear to be frailty related. Integration of both approaches is highly promising for increasing the precision of discrimination of the risk of death and especially for identification of the most vulnerable elderly people.

          • Y Yang and KC Land.
          • (February, 2008).
          • Age-period-cohort analysis of repeated cross-section surveys - Fixed or random effects?.
          • SOCIOLOGICAL METHODS & RESEARCH
          • ,
          • 36
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 297-326.
          • [web]
          • AM Kulminski, KG Arbeev, IV Kulminskaya, SV Ukraintseva, K Land, I Akushevich and AI Yashin.
          • (2007).
          • Body mass index and nine-year mortality in disabled and nondisabled older U.S. individuals..
          • J Am Geriatr Soc
          • ,
          • 56
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 105-110.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and 9-year mortality in older (> or = 65) Americans with and without disability. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: The unique disability-focused National Long Term Care Survey (NLTCS) data that assessed the health and well-being of older individuals in 1994 were analyzed. PARTICIPANTS: Four thousand seven hundred ninety-one individuals in the 1994 survey. MEASUREMENTS: BMI (kg/m2) was calculated from self- or proxy reports of height and weight. The analysis was adjusted for 1-year change in BMI and demographic and health-related factors, as well as reports by proxies, and death occurring during the first 2 years after the interview. RESULTS: The relative risk of death as a function of BMI formed a nonsymmetric U-shaped pattern, with larger risks associated with lower BMI (

          • AM Kulminski, SV Ukraintseva, IV Kulminskaya, KG Arbeev, KC Land, L Akushevich and AI Yashin.
          • (2008).
          • Cumulative Deficits and Physiological Indices as Predictors of Mortality and Long life: Lessons from the Framingham Heart Study.
          • Journal of Gerontology A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
          • ,
          • 63, October,
          • ,
          • 1053-1059.
          • Z Yi, D Gu and KC Land.
          • (August, 2007).
          • The association of childhood socioeconomic conditions with healthy longevity at the oldest-old ages in China..
          • Demography
          • ,
          • 44
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 497-518.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          Based on unique data from the largest-ever sample of the Chinese oldest-old aged 80 and older, our multivariate logistic regression analyses show that either receiving adequate medical service during sickness in childhood or never/rarely suffering from serious illness during childhood significantly reduces the risk of being ADL (activities of daily living) impaired, being cognitively impaired, and self-reporting poor health by 18%-33% at the oldest-old ages. Estimates of effects for five other indicators of childhood conditions are similarly positive but mostly not statistically significant. Multivariate survival analysis shows that better childhood socioeconomic conditions in general tend to reduce the four-year period mortality risk among the oldest-old. But after additional controls for 14 covariates are put into the model, the effects are not statistically significant, thus suggesting that most of the effects of childhood conditions on oldest-old mortality are indirect-at least to the point of affecting current health status at the oldest-old ages, which itself is strongly associated with mortality. While acknowledging limitations of the present analyses due to a lack of information on childhood illness, the oldest-olds'recollection errors, and other data problems, we conclude, based on this and other studies, that policies that enhance childhood health care and children's socioeconomic well-being can have large and long-lasting benefits up to the oldest-old ages.

          • MR Hagerty and KC Land.
          • (May, 2007).
          • Constructing Summary Indices of Quality of Life: A Model for the Effect of Heterogeneous Importance Weights.
          • Sociological Methods and Research
          • ,
          • 36
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 105-132.
          • [web]
          • Kenneth C. Land, Vicki L. Lamb, Sarah O. Meadows, and Ashley Taylor.
          • (January, 2007).
          • Measuring Trends in Child Well-Being: An Evidence-Based Approach.
          • Social Indicators Research
          • ,
          • 80
          • ,
          • 105-132.
          • A Kulminski, A Yashin, K Arbeev, I Akushevich, S Ukraintseva, K Land and K Manton.
          • (2007).
          • Cumulative index of health disorders as an indicator of aging-associated processes in the elderly: Results from analyses of the National Long Term Care Survey.
          • Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
          • ,
          • 128
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 250-258.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          Background: We employ an approach based on the elaborated frailty index (FI), which is capable of taking into account variables with mild effect on the aging, health and survival outcomes, and investigate the connections between the FI, chronological age and the aging-associated outcomes in the elderly. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of pooled data from the National Long Term Care Survey (NLTCS) assessing health and functioning of the U.S. elderly in 1982, 1984, 1989, 1994, and 1999. Results: Distributions of frequency, residual life span, mortality rate, and relative risk of death are remarkably similar over age and FI. Coefficients of correlation between FI and age are low both for males (0.127, p < .01) and females (0.221, p < .01). The FI-specific age patterns show deceleration at advanced ages. The FI can provide order of magnitude better resolution in estimating mean remaining life span compared to age. Males have smaller FI than females while males' mortality risks are higher. For short-time horizons, the FI and age are largely independently associated with mortality risks. Conclusions: The FI: (i) can be considered as an adequate sex-specific indicator of the aging-associated processes in the elderly, (ii) can characterize these processes independently of age, and (iii) is a better characteristic of the aging phenotype than chronological age. © 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

          • A Kulminski, SV Ukraintseva, KGA Igor Akushevich, K Land and AIY and.
          • (2007).
          • Acclerated Accumulation of Health Deficits as a Characteristic of Aging.
          • Experimental Gerontology
          • ,
          • 963-970.
          • S Moller, E Stearns, JR Blau and KC Land.
          • (March, 2006).
          • Smooth and rough roads to academic achievement: Retention and race/class disparities in high school.
          • SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH
          • ,
          • 35
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 157-180.
          • [web]
          • Z Yi, KC Land, Z Wang and D Gu.
          • (March, 2006).
          • U.S. family household momentum and dynamics: An extension and application of the ProFamy method.
          • Population Research and Policy Review
          • ,
          • 25
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 1-41.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          The classic headship-rate method for demographic projections of households is not linked to demographic rates, projects a few household types without size, and does not deal with household members other than heads. By comparison, the ProFamy method uses demographic rates as input and projects more detailed household types, sizes, and living arrangements for all members of the population. Tests of projections from 1990 to 2000 using ProFamy and based on observed U.S. demographic rates before 1991 show that discrepancies between our projections and census observations in 2000 are reasonably small, validating the new method. Using data from national surveys and vital statistics, census microfiles, and the ProFamy method, we prepare projections of U.S. households from 2000 to 2050. Medium projections as well as projections based on smaller and larger family scenarios with corresponding combinations of assumptions of marriage/union formation and dissolution, fertility, mortality, and international migration are performed to analyze future trends of U.S. households and their possible higher and lower bounds, as well as enormous racial differentials. To our knowledge, the household projections reported in this article are the first to have found empirical evidence of family household momentum and to have provided informative low and high bounds of various indices of projected future households and living arrangements distributions based on possible changes in demographic parameters. © Springer 2006.

          • Y Yang and KC Land.
          • (2006).
          • A mixed models approach to the age-period-cohort analysis of repeated cross-section surveys, with an application to data on trends in verbal test scores.
          • SOCIOLOGICAL METHODOLOGY 2006, VOL 36
          • ,
          • 36
          • ,
          • 75-97.
          • [web]
          • A Kulminski, A Yashin, S Ukraintseva, I Akushevich, K Arbeev, K Land and K Manton.
          • (November, 2006).
          • Accumulation of health disorders as a systemic measure of aging: Findings from the NLTCS data.
          • Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
          • ,
          • 127
          • (11)
          • ,
          • 840-848.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          Background: An index of age-associated health/well-being disorders (deficits), called the "frailty index" (FI), appears to be a promising characteristic to capture dynamic variability in aging manifestations among age-peers. In this study we provide further support toward this view focusing on the analysis of the FI age patterns in the participants of the National Long Term Care Survey (NLTCS). Methods: The NLTCS assessed health and functioning of the U.S. elderly in 1982, 1984, 1989, 1994, and 1999. Detailed information for our sample was assessed from about 26,700 interviews. The individual FI is defined as a proportion of health deficits for a given person. Results: The FI in the NLTCS exhibits accelerated age patterns. The acceleration is larger for elderly who, at younger ages, had a lower FI (low FI group) than for those who showed a higher FI at younger ages (high FI group). Age-patterns for low and high FI groups tend to converge at advanced ages. The rate of deficit accumulation is sex-sensitive. Conclusions: The accelerated FI age patterns suggest that FI can be considered as a systemic measure of aging process. Convergence of the (sex-specific) FI age patterns for low and high FI groups by extreme ages might reflect the limit of the FI-specific (or systemic) age as well as the limit of adaptation capacity in aging individuals. © 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

      • Papers Published

          • Q Fu and KC Land.
          • (2015).
          • The Increasing Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity of Children and Youth in China, 1989–2009: An Age–Period–Cohort Analysis.
          • Population Research and Policy Review
          • ,
          • 34
          • (6)
          • ,
          • 901-921.
          • [web]
          • H Yu, S Jiang and KC Land.
          • (2015).
          • Multicollinearity in hierarchical linear models..
          • Social science research
          • ,
          • 53
          • ,
          • 118-136.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          This study investigates an ill-posed problem (multicollinearity) in Hierarchical Linear Models from both the data and the model perspectives. We propose an intuitive, effective approach to diagnosing the presence of multicollinearity and its remedies in this class of models. A simulation study demonstrates the impacts of multicollinearity on coefficient estimates, associated standard errors, and variance components at various levels of multicollinearity for finite sample sizes typical in social science studies. We further investigate the role multicollinearity plays at each level for estimation of coefficient parameters in terms of shrinkage. Based on these analyses, we recommend a top-down method for assessing multicollinearity in HLMs that first examines the contextual predictors (Level-2 in a two-level model) and then the individual predictors (Level-1) and uses the results for data collection, research problem redefinition, model re-specification, variable selection and estimation of a final model.

          • Y Zeng, H Chen, Z Wang and KC Land.
          • (2015).
          • Implications of changes in households and living arrangements for future home-based care needs and costs for disabled elders in China..
          • Journal of aging and health
          • ,
          • 27
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 519-550.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          OBJECTIVES: To better understand future home-based care needs and costs for disabled elders in China. METHOD: To further develop and apply the ProFamy extended cohort-component method and the most recent census and survey data. RESULTS: (a) Chinese disabled elders and the annual growth rate of the percentage of national gross domestic product (GDP) devoted to home-based care costs for disabled elders will increase much more rapidly than the growth of total elderly population; (b) home-based care needs and costs for disabled oldest-old aged 80+ will increase much faster than that for disabled young-old aged 65-79 after 2030; (c) disabled unmarried elders living alone and their home-based care costs increase substantially faster than those disabled unmarried elders living with children; (d) percent of rural disabled oldest-old will be substantially higher than that of rural population after 2030; (e) sensitivity analyses show that possible changes in mortality and elderly disability status are the major direct factors affecting home-based care needs and costs; (f) caregivers resources under the universal two-child policy will be substantially better than that under the rigorous fertility policy unchanged. DISCUSSION: We discuss policy recommendations concerning pathways to healthy aging with relatively reduced care costs, including reductions of the prevalence of disability, gender equality, the universal two-child policy and resources of caregivers, encouragements of rural-to-urban family migration and elder's residential proximity to their adult children, and remarriages of not-married elders.

          • Y Zeng, H Chen, T Ni, R Ruan, L Feng, C Nie, L Cheng, Y Li, W Tao, J Gu, KC Land, A Yashin, Q Tan, Z Yang, L Bolund, H Yang, E Hauser, DC Willcox, BJ Willcox, XL Tian and JW Vaupel.
          • (2015).
          • GxE interactions between FOXO genotypes and drinking tea are significantly associated with prevention of cognitive decline in advanced age in China..
          • The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences
          • ,
          • 70
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 426-433.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          Logistic regression analysis based on data from 822 Han Chinese oldest old aged 92+ demonstrated that interactions between carrying FOXO1A-266 or FOXO3-310 or FOXO3-292 and tea drinking at around age 60 or at present time were significantly associated with lower risk of cognitive disability at advanced ages. Associations between tea drinking and reduced cognitive disability were much stronger among carriers of the genotypes of FOXO1A-266 or FOXO3-310 or FOXO3-292 compared with noncarriers, and it was reconfirmed by analysis of three-way interactions across FOXO genotypes, tea drinking at around age 60, and at present time. Based on prior findings from animal and human cell models, we postulate that intake of tea compounds may activate FOXO gene expression, which in turn may positively affect cognitive function in the oldest old population. Our empirical findings imply that the health benefits of particular nutritional interventions, including tea drinking, may, in part, depend upon individual genetic profiles.

          • YC Yang and KC Land.
          • (2015).
          • Review of Age-Period-Cohort Analysis: New Models, Methods, and Empirical Applications.
          • JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION
          • ,
          • 110
          • (509)
          • ,
          • 457-457.
          • [web]
          • EN Reither, RK Masters, YC Yang, DA Powers, H Zheng and KC Land.
          • (2015).
          • Should age-period-cohort studies return to the methodologies of the 1970s?.
          • Social Science and Medicine
          • ,
          • 128
          • ,
          • 356-365.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Social scientists have recognized the importance of age-period-cohort (APC) models for half a century, but have spent much of this time mired in debates about the feasibility of APC methods. Recently, a new class of APC methods based on modern statistical knowledge has emerged, offering potential solutions. In 2009, Reither, Hauser and Yang used one of these new methods - hierarchical APC (HAPC) modeling - to study how birth cohorts may have contributed to the U.S. obesity epidemic. They found that recent birth cohorts experience higher odds of obesity than their predecessors, but that ubiquitous period-based changes are primarily responsible for the rising prevalence of obesity. Although these findings have been replicated elsewhere, recent commentaries by Bell and Jones call them into question - along with the new class of APC methods. Specifically, Bell and Jones claim that new APC methods do not adequately address model identification and suggest that "solid theory" is often sufficient to remove one of the three temporal dimensions from empirical consideration. They also present a series of simulation models that purportedly show how the HAPC models estimated by Reither etal. (2009) could have produced misleading results. However, these simulation models rest on assumptions that there were no period effects, and associations between period and cohort variables and the outcome were perfectly linear. Those are conditions under which APC models should never be used. Under more tenable assumptions, our own simulations show that HAPC methods perform well, both in recovering the main findings presented by Reither etal. (2009) and the results reported by Bell and Jones. We also respond to critiques about model identification and theoretically-imposed constraints, finding little pragmatic support for such arguments. We conclude by encouraging social scientists to move beyond the debates of the 1970s and toward a deeper appreciation for modern APC methodologies.

          • EN Reither, RK Masters, YC Yang, DA Powers, H Zheng and KC Land.
          • (2015).
          • Should age-period-cohort studies return to the methodologies of the 1970s?.
          • Social science & medicine (1982)
          • ,
          • 128
          • ,
          • 356-365.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          Social scientists have recognized the importance of age-period-cohort (APC) models for half a century, but have spent much of this time mired in debates about the feasibility of APC methods. Recently, a new class of APC methods based on modern statistical knowledge has emerged, offering potential solutions. In 2009, Reither, Hauser and Yang used one of these new methods - hierarchical APC (HAPC) modeling - to study how birth cohorts may have contributed to the U.S. obesity epidemic. They found that recent birth cohorts experience higher odds of obesity than their predecessors, but that ubiquitous period-based changes are primarily responsible for the rising prevalence of obesity. Although these findings have been replicated elsewhere, recent commentaries by Bell and Jones call them into question - along with the new class of APC methods. Specifically, Bell and Jones claim that new APC methods do not adequately address model identification and suggest that "solid theory" is often sufficient to remove one of the three temporal dimensions from empirical consideration. They also present a series of simulation models that purportedly show how the HAPC models estimated by Reither et al. (2009) could have produced misleading results. However, these simulation models rest on assumptions that there were no period effects, and associations between period and cohort variables and the outcome were perfectly linear. Those are conditions under which APC models should never be used. Under more tenable assumptions, our own simulations show that HAPC methods perform well, both in recovering the main findings presented by Reither et al. (2009) and the results reported by Bell and Jones. We also respond to critiques about model identification and theoretically-imposed constraints, finding little pragmatic support for such arguments. We conclude by encouraging social scientists to move beyond the debates of the 1970s and toward a deeper appreciation for modern APC methodologies.

          • YC Yang and KC Land.
          • (2015).
          • Reply.
          • Journal of the American Statistical Association
          • ,
          • 110
          • (509)
          • ,
          • 457.
          • [web]
          • Q Fu and KC Land.
          • (2015).
          • The Rising Overweight Epidemic in China: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis, 1989-2009.
          • Population, Space and Place, forthcoming
          • .
          • KC Land.
          • (2014).
          • Delinquency Referrals; Predictive and Protective Factors for Serious, Violent, and Chronic Offenders; and Juvenile Justice Interventions.
          • Criminology & Public Policy
          • ,
          • 13
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 79-82.
          • [web]
          • KC Land.
          • (2014).
          • Social Quality: From Theory to Indicators.
          • Contemporary Sociology: A Journal of Reviews
          • ,
          • 43
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 102-103.
          • [web]
          • KC Land.
          • (2014).
          • Delinquency referrals; predictive and protective factors for serious, violent, and chronic offenders; and juvenile justice interventions.
          • Criminology and Public Policy
          • .
          • YC Yang and KC Land.
          • (2013).
          • Misunderstandings, Mischaracterizations, and the Problematic Choice of a Specific Instance in Which the IE Should Never Be Applied.
          • Demography
          • ,
          • 50
          • (6)
          • ,
          • 1969-1971.
          • [web]
          • S Jiang, KC Land and J Wang.
          • (2013).
          • Social Ties, Collective Efficacy and Perceived Neighborhood Property Crime in Guangzhou, China.
          • Asian Journal of Criminology
          • ,
          • 8
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 207-223.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          This study aims to (1) explore perceptions of property crime at the neighborhood level and their correlates based on a random sample from Guangzhou, China and (2) assess the applicability of collective efficacy theory in contemporary urban China. Since the data used in this study are multilevel and the dependent variable is dichotomous, a generalized hierarchical linear model was used for analysis of the data. This study reveals that both community structural variables (residential stability and poverty) and community process variables (social ties, collective efficacy and semi-formal control) were found to affect individuals' perceptions of neighborhood property crime in Guangzhou. However, communities in Guangzhou are different from those in big cities in the US. This is evidenced by several findings in this study: (1) poorer communities in Guangzhou were not associated with lower levels of formal and informal control; (2) communities with higher levels of residential mobility were neither linked to higher levels of poverty nor disorganization; and (3) the correlation between residential stability and perceived neighborhood property crime was not mediated by community processes. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

          • SM Frenk, YC Yang and KC Land.
          • (2013).
          • Assessing the Significance of Cohort and Period Effects in Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort Models: Applications to Verbal Test Scores and Voter Turnout in U.S. Presidential Elections.
          • SOCIAL FORCES
          • ,
          • 92
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 221-248.
          • [web]
          • Y Zeng, KC Land, Z Wang and D Gu.
          • (2013).
          • Household and living arrangement projections at the subnational level: an extended cohort-component approach..
          • Demography
          • ,
          • 50
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 827-852.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          This article presents the core methodological ideas and empirical assessments of an extended cohort-component approach (known as the "ProFamy model"), and applications to simultaneously project household composition, living arrangements, and population sizes-gender structures at the subnational level in the United States. Comparisons of projections from 1990 to 2000 using this approach with census counts in 2000 for each of the 50 states and Washington, DC show that 68.0 %, 17.0 %, 11.2 %, and 3.8 % of the absolute percentage errors are

          • Q Fu, KC Land and VL Lamb.
          • (2013).
          • Bullying Victimization, Socioeconomic Status and Behavioral Characteristics of 12th Graders in the United States, 1989 to 2009: Repetitive Trends and Persistent Risk Differentials.
          • CHILD INDICATORS RESEARCH
          • ,
          • 6
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 1-21.
          • [web]
          • K Stiles.
          • (2013).
          • Forward.
          • manual
          • R Miller and J Carson and T Wilkie (Eds.),
          • MuseumsEtc and School of Arts & Media at Salford University.
          • KC Land, RHC Teske and H Zheng.
          • (2012).
          • The differential short-term impacts of executions on felony and non-felony homicides.
          • Criminology and Public Policy
          • ,
          • 11
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 541-563.
          • [web]
          • AI Yashin, D Wu, KG Arbeev, E Stallard, KC Land and SV Ukraintseva.
          • (2012).
          • How genes influence life span: the biodemography of human survival..
          • Rejuvenation Res
          • ,
          • 15
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 374-380.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          BACKGROUND: In genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of human life span, none of the genetic variants has reached the level of genome-wide statistical significance. The roles of such variants in life span regulation remain unclear. DATA AND METHOD: A biodemographic analyses was done of genetic regulation of life span using data on low-significance longevity alleles selected in the earlier GWAS of the original Framingham cohort. RESULTS: Age-specific survival curves considered as functions of the number of longevity alleles exhibit regularities known in demography as "rectangularization" of survival curves. The presence of such pattern confirms observations from experimental studies that regulation of life span involves genes responsible for stress resistance. CONCLUSION: Biodemographic analyses could provide important information about the properties of genes affecting phenotypic traits.

          • S Mustillo, LR Landerman and KC Land.
          • (2012).
          • Modeling Longitudinal Count Data: Testing for Group Differences in Growth Trajectories Using Average Marginal Effects.
          • Sociological Methods & Research
          • ,
          • 41
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 467-487.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          To test for group differences in growth trajectories in mixed (fixed and random effects) models, researchers frequently interpret the coefficient of Group-by-Time product terms. While this practice is straightforward in linear mixed models, it is less so in generalized linear mixed models. Using both an empirical example and synthetic data, we show that the coefficient of Group-by-Time product terms in a specific class of mixed models-mixed Poisson models for count outcome variables-estimates the group difference in slope as the multiplicative change with respect to the baseline rates, not differences in the predicted rate of change between groups. The latter can be obtained from computing the marginal effect for the expected response with respect to time by group following model estimation. We propose and illustrate the use of marginal effects to test and interpret group differences in rate of change over time following estimation with mixed Poisson regression models. © The Author(s) 2012.

          • KC Land, TRHC Jr and H Zheng.
          • (2012).
          • The Differential Short-Term Impacts of Executions on Felony and Non-Felony Homicides.
          • CRIMINOLOGY & PUBLIC POLICY
          • ,
          • 11
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 539-563.
          • [web]
          • J Phillips and KC Land.
          • (2012).
          • The link between unemployment and crime rate fluctuations: An analysis at the county, state, and national levels.
          • SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH
          • ,
          • 41
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 681-694.
          • [web]
          • H Zheng and KC Land.
          • (2012).
          • Composition and decomposition in US gender-specific self-reported health disparities, 1984-2007.
          • SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH
          • ,
          • 41
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 477-488.
          • [web]
          • AI Yashin, KG Arbeev, I Akushevich, A Kulminski, SV Ukraintseva, E Stallard and KC Land.
          • (2012).
          • Modeling longitudinal data on health aging and life span.
          • Physics of Life Reviews
          • ,
          • 9
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 195-197.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          We address comments from the three discussants of our paper, paying particular attention to the properties of our model likely to be of interest in new applications to complex dynamic systems. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

          • KC Land, J Raymond H C Teske and H Zheng.
          • (2012).
          • The Differential Short-Term Impacts of Executions on Felony and Non-Felony Homicides.
          • Criminology and Public Policy
          • ,
          • 11
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 541-563.
          • [web]
          • WJ Fu, KC Land and Y Yang.
          • (2011).
          • On the Intrinsic Estimator and Constrained Estimators in Age-Period-Cohort Models.
          • SOCIOLOGICAL METHODS & RESEARCH
          • ,
          • 40
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 453-466.
          • [web]
          • AM Kulminski, I Culminskaya, SV Ukraintseva, KG Arbeev, L Arbeeva, D Wu, I Akushevich, KC Land and AI Yashin.
          • (2011).
          • Trade-off in the effects of the apolipoprotein E polymorphism on the ages at onset of CVD and cancer influences human lifespan..
          • Aging Cell
          • ,
          • 10
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 533-541.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          Progress in unraveling the genetic origins of healthy aging is tempered, in part, by a lack of replication of effects, which is often considered a signature of false-positive findings. We convincingly demonstrate that the lack of genetic effects on an aging-related trait can be because of trade-offs in the gene action. We focus on the well-studied apolipoprotein E (APOE) e2/3/4 polymorphism and on lifespan and ages at onset of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cancer, using data on 3924 participants of the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort. Kaplan-Meier estimates show that the e4 allele carriers live shorter lives than the non-e4 allele carriers (log rank = 0.016). The adverse effect was attributed to the poor survival of the e4 homozygotes, whereas the effect of the common e3/4 genotype was insignificant. The e3/4 genotype, however, was antagonistically associated with onsets of those diseases predisposing to an earlier onset of CVD and a later onset of cancer compared to the non-e4 allele genotypes. This trade-off explains the lack of a significant effect of the e3/4 genotype on survival; adjustment for it in the Cox regression model makes the detrimental effect of the e4 allele highly significant (P = 0.002). This trade-off is likely caused by the lipid-metabolism-related (for CVD) and nonrelated (for cancer) mechanisms. An evolutionary rationale suggests that genetic trade-offs should not be an exception in studies of aging-related traits. Deeper insights into biological mechanisms mediating gene action are critical for understanding the genetic regulation of a healthy lifespan and for personalizing medical care.

          • KC Land and H Zheng.
          • (2010).
          • Questions about the relationship of economic conditions to violent victimization.
          • CRIMINOLOGY & PUBLIC POLICY
          • ,
          • 9
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 699-706.
          • [web]
          • KC Land.
          • (2010).
          • Who will be the public criminologists? How will they be supported?.
          • CRIMINOLOGY & PUBLIC POLICY
          • ,
          • 9
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 769-770.
          • [web]
          • AM Kulminski, IV Culminskaya, SV Ukraintseva, KG Arbeev, KC Land and AI Yashin.
          • (2008).
          • Sex-specific health deterioration and mortality: the morbidity-mortality paradox over age and time..
          • Exp Gerontol
          • ,
          • 43
          • (12)
          • ,
          • 1052-1057.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          The traditional sex morbidity-mortality paradox that females have worse health but better survival than males is based on studies of major health traits. We applied a cumulative deficits approach to study this paradox, selecting 34 minor health deficits consistently measured in the 9th (1964) and 14th (1974) Framingham Heart and 5th (1991-1995) Offspring Study exams focusing on the 55-78 age range. We constructed four deficit indices (DIs) using all 34 deficits as well as subsets of these deficits characterizing males' (DI(M)) and females' (DI(F)) health disadvantages, and no relative sex-disadvantages. The DI(34)-specific age patterns are sex-insensitive within the 55-74 age range. The DI(34), however, tends to selectively increase the risk of death for males. The DI(F)-associated health dimension supports the traditional morbidity paradox, whereas the DI(M)-associated dimension supports the inverse paradox, wherein males have worse health but better survival than females. The traditional paradox became less pronounced, whereas the inverse paradox became more pronounced from the 1960s to the 1990 s. The sex-specific excess in minor health deficits may vary according to particular set of deficits, thus providing evidence for traditional and inverse morbidity paradoxes. The time-trends suggest the presence of a strong exogenous effect modifier affecting the rate of health deterioration and mortality risk.

          • KC Land.
          • (2008).
          • Public Sociology: From Social Facts to Literary Acts, 2nd edition.
          • CONTEMPORARY SOCIOLOGY-A JOURNAL OF REVIEWS
          • ,
          • 37
          • (6)
          • ,
          • 507-511.
          • [web]
          • KC Land.
          • (2008).
          • Public Sociology: Fifteen Eminent Sociologists Debate Politics and the Profession in the Twenty-First Century.
          • CONTEMPORARY SOCIOLOGY-A JOURNAL OF REVIEWS
          • ,
          • 37
          • (6)
          • ,
          • 507-511.
          • [web]
          • AM Kulminski, SV Ukraintseva, IV Culminskaya, KG Arbeev, KC Land, L Akushevich and AI Yashin.
          • (2008).
          • Cumulative deficits and physiological indices as predictors of mortality and long life..
          • J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci
          • ,
          • 63
          • (10)
          • ,
          • 1053-1059.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          We evaluated the predictive potential for long-term (24-year) survival and longevity (85+ years) of an index of cumulative deficits (DI) and six physiological indices (pulse pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, serum cholesterol, blood glucose, and hematocrit) measured in mid- to late life (44-88 years) for participants of the 9th and 14th Framingham Heart Study examinations. For all ages combined, the DI, pulse pressure, and blood glucose are the strongest determinants of both long-term survival and longevity, contributing cumulatively to their explanation. Diastolic blood pressure and hematocrit are less significant determinants of both of these outcomes. The pulse rate is more relevant to survival, whereas serum cholesterol is more relevant to longevity. Only the DI is a significant predictor of longevity and mortality for each 5-year age group ranging from 45 to 85 years. The DI appears to be a more important determinant of long-term risks of death and longevity than are the physiological indices.

          • KC Land.
          • (2008).
          • Sociological methodology.
          • SOCIOLOGICAL METHODS & RESEARCH
          • ,
          • 36
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 564-568.
          • [web]
          • KC Land.
          • (2008).
          • A note from the new editor.
          • DEMOGRAPHY
          • ,
          • 45
          • (1)
          • .
          • [web]
          • KC Land.
          • (2007).
          • Comments from Kenneth C. Land.
          • Journal of Happiness Studies
          • ,
          • 8
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 455.
          • [web]
          • KC Land and JL Schafer.
          • (2007).
          • Model for intensive longitudinal data.
          • AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY
          • ,
          • 113
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 596-598.
          • [web]
          • SO Meadows, KC Land and VL Lamb.
          • (2005).
          • Assessing Gilligan vs. Sommers: Gender-specific trends in child and youth well-being in the United States, 1985-2001.
          • SOCIAL INDICATORS RESEARCH
          • ,
          • 70
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 1-52.
          • [web]
          • AV D'Unger, KC Land and PL McCall.
          • (2002).
          • Sex differences in age patterns of delinquent/criminal careers: Results from Poisson latent class analyses of the Philadelphia Cohort study.
          • JOURNAL OF QUANTITATIVE CRIMINOLOGY
          • ,
          • 18
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 349-375.
          • [web]
          • Y Zeng and KC Land.
          • (2002).
          • Adjusting period tempo changes with an extension of Ryder's basic translation equation..
          • Demography
          • ,
          • 39
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 269-285.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          We show that the observed changes in the period tempo of fertility are biased and derive a new formula for adjusting such bias. We present illustrative applications of our proposed method to the cases of the United States and Taiwan. We then describe the relevance of adjustments of observed period fertility tempo for evaluating family planning programs aiming at delaying and reducing births to slow down population growth in developing countries. The work reported in this article also can be regarded as an extension of Ryder's basic translation equation. The extension provides a set of formulas expressing relationships of quantum-tempo between cohorts and periods under specified assumptions.

          • Kenneth C. Land.
          • (2001).
          • "Models and Indicators".
          • Social Forces
          • ,
          • 80, (December)
          • ,
          • 381-410.
          • D Cantor and KC Land.
          • (December, 2001).
          • Unemployment and crime rate fluctuations: A comment on Greenberg.
          • JOURNAL OF QUANTITATIVE CRIMINOLOGY
          • ,
          • 17
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 329-342.
          • [web]
          • KC Land.
          • (2001).
          • Models and indicators.
          • SOCIAL FORCES
          • ,
          • 80
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 381-410.
          • [web]
          • MR Hagerty, RA Cummins, AL Ferriss, K Land, AC Michalos, M Peterson, JS Andrew Sharpe and J Vogel.
          • (2001).
          • Quality of Life Indexes for National Policy: Review and Agenda for Research.
          • Social Indicators Research
          • ,
          • 55
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 1-96.
          • [web]
          • MR Hagerty, R Cummins, AL Ferriss, K Land, AC Michalos, M Peterson, A Sharpe, J Sirgy and J Vogel.
          • (2001).
          • Quality of Life Indexes for National Policy: Review and Agenda for Research.
          • Bulletin de Méthodologie Sociologique
          • ,
          • 71
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 58-78.
          • [web]
          • Z Yi and KC Land.
          • (2001).
          • A sensitivity analysis of the Bongaarts-Feeney method for adjusting bias in observed period total fertility rates..
          • Demography
          • ,
          • 38
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 17-28.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          Our sensitivity analysis shows that the adjusted TFR'(t) using the formula of Bongaarts and Feeney (1998), which assumes an invariant shape for the fertility schedule, usually does not differ significantly from an adjusted TFR"(t) that allows the shape of the fertility schedule to change at a constant annual rate. Because annual changes in the shape of the fertility schedules often are approximately constant except in abnormal conditions, the Bongaarts-Feeney (B-F) method is generally robust for producing reasonable estimates of the adjusted TFR'(t). The adjusted TFR'(t) neither represents any real cohort experiences from the past nor forecasts any future trend. It merely provides an improved reading of the period fertility measure, which reduces the tempo distortion.

          • KC Land.
          • (2001).
          • Introduction to the special issue on finite mixture models.
          • SOCIOLOGICAL METHODS & RESEARCH
          • ,
          • 29
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 275-281.
          • [web]
          • KC Land, DS Nagin and PL McCall.
          • (2001).
          • Discrete-time hazard regression models with hidden heterogeneity - The semiparametric mixed Poisson regression approach.
          • SOCIOLOGICAL METHODS & RESEARCH
          • ,
          • 29
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 342-373.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          Previous methodological research has shown that hidden heterogeneity in hazard rate regression models—in the form of systematic differences between sample members in the risk or hazard of making a transition due to unobserved variables not accounted for by the measured covariates—can produce biased parameter estimates and erroneous inferences. However, few empirical applications of hazard regression do more than pay lip service to the complications of hidden heterogeneity. In part, this is due to the relative inaccessibility of the mathematical apparatus of continuous-time hazard regression methodology with flexible nonparametric specifications on the hidden heterogeneity. This article presents new methods for incorporating nonparametric specifications of hidden heterogeneity into hazard regressions by developing discrete-time Poisson rate/complementary log-log hazard regression models with nonparametric hidden heterogeneity that are analogous to the continuous-time models of Heckman and Singer. Maximum-likelihood estimators and associated hypothesis tests are described. An empirical application to data on criminal careers, which illustrates the utility of models that explicitly incorporate hidden heterogeneity, is presented.

          • KC Land, VL Lamb and SK Mustillo.
          • (2001).
          • Child and youth well-being in the United States, 1975-1998: Some findings from a new index.
          • SOCIAL INDICATORS RESEARCH
          • ,
          • 56
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 241-320.
          • [web]
          • KENNETHC LAND, DANIELS NAGIN and LM PATRICIA.
          • (2001).
          • Discrete-Time Hazard Regression Models with Hidden Heterogeneity.
          • Sociological Methods & Research
          • ,
          • 29
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 342-373.
          Publication Description

          Previous methodological research has shown that hidden heterogeneity in hazard rate regression models—in the form of systematic differences between sample members in the risk or hazard of making a transition due to unobserved variables not accounted for by the measured covariates—can produce biased parameter estimates and erroneous inferences. However, few empirical applications of hazard regression do more than pay lip service to the complications of hidden heterogeneity. In part, this is due to the relative inaccessibility of the mathematical apparatus of continuous-time hazard regression methodology with flexible nonparametric specifications on the hidden heterogeneity. This article presents new methods for incorporating nonparametric specifications of hidden heterogeneity into hazard regressions by developing discrete-time Poisson rate/complementary log-log hazard regression models with nonparametric hidden heterogeneity that are analogous to the continuous-time models of Heckman and Singer. Maximum-likelihood estimators and associated hypothesis tests are described. An empirical application to data on criminal careers, which illustrates the utility of models that explicitly incorporate hidden heterogeneity, is presented.

          • KG Manton and KC Land.
          • (2000).
          • Active life expectancy estimates for the U.S. elderly population: a multidimensional continuous-mixture model of functional change applied to completed cohorts, 1982-1996..
          • Demography
          • ,
          • 37
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 253-265.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          An increment-decrement stochastic-process life table model that continuously mixes measures of functional change is developed to represent age transitions among highly refined disability states interacting simultaneously with mortality. The model is applied to data from the National Long Term Care Surveys of elderly persons in the years 1982 to 1996 to produce active life expectancy estimates based on completed-cohort life tables. At ages 65 and 85, comparisons with extant period estimates for 1990 show that our active life expectancy estimates are larger for both males and females than are extant period estimates based on coarse disability states.

          • KG Manton and KC Land.
          • (2000).
          • Multidimensional disability/mortality trajectories at ages 65 and over: The impact of state dependence.
          • SOCIAL INDICATORS RESEARCH
          • ,
          • 51
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 193-221.
          • [web]
          • Pamela Wilcox Rountree and Kenneth C. Land.
          • (2000).
          • "The Generalizability of Multilevel Models of Burglary Victimization: A Cross-City Comparision.".
          • Social Science Research
          • ,
          • 29
          • ,
          • 284-305.
          • Pamela Wilcox Roundtree and Kenneth C. Land.
          • (2000).
          • "The Generalizability of Multilevel Models of Burglary Victimization: A Cross-City Comparision.".
          • Social Science Research
          • ,
          • 29
          • ,
          • 284-305.
          • PW Roundtree and KC Land.
          • (2000).
          • The Generalizability of Multilevel Models of Burglary Victimization: A Cross-City Comparision..
          • Social Science Research
          • ,
          • 29
          • ,
          • 284-305.
          • PW Rountree and KC Land.
          • (2000).
          • The generalizability of multilevel models of burglary victimization: A cross-city comparison.
          • SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH
          • ,
          • 29
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 284-305.
          • [web]
          • JR Blau, KC Land and R McVeigh.
          • (2000).
          • The Expansion of Two Year Collleges: A Dynamic Multi-Level Model.
          • Community College Journal
          • ,
          • 24
          • ,
          • 127-144.
          • KG Manton and KC Land.
          • (1999).
          • Discussion of ‘Critique of Mexico’s New Social Security Act.
          • North American Actuarial Journal
          • ,
          • 3
          • ,
          • 101-102.
          • Taylor & Francis (Routledge): SSH Titles - no Open Select.
          • DC Nath, KC Land and G Goswami.
          • (1999).
          • Effects of the status of women on the first-birth interval in Indian urban society..
          • J Biosoc Sci
          • ,
          • 31
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 55-69.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          The status of women, which is relative and multidimensional, has an important bearing on any long-term reduction in fertility. In Indian society, where cohabitation and childbearing are socially sanctioned only after marriage, the length of the first-birth interval affects the completed family size by influencing the spacing and childbearing pattern of a family. This study examines the influence of certain aspects of the status of married women--education, employment, role in family decision making, and age at marriage--along with three socioeconomic variables--per capita income of the family, social position of the household, and the caste system--on the duration of the first-birth interval in an urban Hindu society of the north-east Indian state of Assam. The data were analysed by applying life table and hazard regression techniques. The results indicate that a female's age at marriage, education, current age, role in decision making, and the per capita income of the household are the main covariates that strongly influence the length of the first-birth interval of Hindu females of urban Assam. Of all the covariates studied, a female's education appears to be a key mediating factor, through its influence on her probability of employment outside the home and thereby an earned income and on her role in family decision making. Unlike other Indian communities, the effect of the caste system does not have a significant effect on first-birth timing in this urban Hindu society.

          • KI Spenner, OO Suhomlinova, SA Thore, KC Land and DC Jones.
          • (1998).
          • Strong legacies and weak markets: Bulgarian state-owned enterprises during early transition.
          • AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW
          • ,
          • 63
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 599-617.
          • [web]
          • AV D'Unger, KC Land, PL McCall and DS Nagin.
          • (1998).
          • How many latent classes of delinquent/criminal careers? Results from mixed Poisson regression analyses.
          • AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY
          • ,
          • 103
          • (6)
          • ,
          • 1593-1630.
          • [web]
          • AVD Unger, KC Land, PL McCall and DS Nagin.
          • (1998).
          • How Many Categories of Delinquent/Criminal Careers? Results from Mixed Poisson Regression Analyses of the London, Philadelphia, and Racine Cohort Studies.
          • American Journal of Sociology
          • ,
          • 103
          • ,
          • 1593-1630.
          • KG Manton and KC Land.
          • (1998).
          • Discussion of ‘Social Security: Regressive or Progressive?'.
          • by Robert L. Brown, North American Actuarial Journal
          • ,
          • 2
          • ,
          • 27-28.
          • KC Land.
          • (1998).
          • The self in the family: A classification of personality, criminality, and psychopathology..
          • AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY
          • ,
          • 103
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 1147-1149.
          • [web]
          • JC Hays, LR Landerman, LK George, EP Flint, HG Koenig, KC Land and DG Blazer.
          • (1998).
          • Social correlates of the dimensions of depression in the elderly..
          • J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci
          • ,
          • 53
          • (1)
          • ,
          • P31-P39.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          Few investigations of the social correlates of depressive symptomatology have addressed variation in the correlates across multiple dimensions of depression scales. We examined the relationships of selected social, clinical, and demographic correlates with four dimensions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale in 3,401 community-dwelling elders in the Piedmont area of North Carolina. These correlates explained significant variation in somatic complaints and depressed affect; effects of chronic disability and recent negative events were particularly robust. Having a confidant explained reduced symptomatology for all four dimensions, but particularly for low positive affect and interpersonal problems. Positive affect was also buttressed by helping others. These patterns have particular relevance where treatment for depression is divorced from considerations of the social environment of the elderly patient.

          • JC Hayes, LR Landerman, LK George, EP Flint, HG Koenig, KC Land and DG Blazer.
          • (1998).
          • Social Correlates of the Dimensions of Depression in the Elderly.
          • Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences
          • ,
          • 53b
          • (1)
          • ,
          • P31-P39.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          Few investigations of the social correlates of depressive symptomatology have addressed variation in the correlates across multiple dimensions of depression scales. We examined the relationships of selected social, clinical, and demographic correlates with four dimensions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale in 3,401 community-dwelling elders in the Piedmont area of North Carolina. These correlates explained significant variation in somatic complaints and depressed affect; effects of chronic disability and recent negative events were particularly robust. Having a confidant explained reduced symptomatology for all four dimensions, but particularly for low positive affect and interpersonal problems. Positive affect was also buttressed by helping others. These patterns have particular relevance where treatment for depression is divorced from considerations of the social environment of the elderly patient.

          • KC Land.
          • (1997).
          • Containing Social Disorder and Involving the Public in Nurturant Strategies: Feasible and Cost-Effective Strategies of Crime Control.
          • Politics and the Life Sciences
          • ,
          • 16
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 9-11.
          • [web]
          • KC Land.
          • (1997).
          • Containing social disorder and involving the public in nurturant strategies: Feasible and cost-effective strategies of crime control.
          • POLITICS AND THE LIFE SCIENCES
          • ,
          • 16
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 31-33.
          • [web]
          • JR Blau, K Redding, WR Davis and KC Land.
          • (1997).
          • Spatial Processes and The Duality of Church and Faith: A Simmelian Perspective on U.S. Denominational Growth, 1900-1930.
          • Sociological Perspectives
          • ,
          • 40
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 557-580.
          • LR Landerman, KC Land and CF Pieper.
          • (1997).
          • An empirical evaluation of the predictive mean matching method for imputing missing values.
          • Sociological Methods and Research
          • ,
          • 26
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 3-33.
          Publication Description

          This article reports empirical explorations of how well the predictive mean matching method for imputing missing data works for an often problematic variable - income -when income is used as an explanatory variable in a substantive regression model. It is found that the performance of the predictive mean method varies considerably with the predictive power of the imputation regression model and the percentage of cases with missing data on income. In comparisons of single-value with multiple-imputation methods, it also is found that the amount of bias and the loss of precision associated with single-value methods is considerably less than that associated with a weak imputation model. Situations in which using imputed data can lead to seriously biased estimates of regression coefficients (and related statistics) and situations in which the bias is so minimal as to be nonproblematic are identified.

          • KC Land and ST Russell.
          • (1996).
          • Wealth Accumulation across the Adult Life Course: Stability and Change in Sociodemographic Covariate Structures of Net Worth Data in the Survey of Income and Program Participation, 1984-1991.
          • Soc Sci Res
          • ,
          • 25
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 423-462.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          This paper reports microlevel Tobit regression analyses of sociodemographic covariates of the life course accumulation of total household net worth data in eight waves of five distinct panels-spanning over 6 years from late 1984 through early 1991-of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). It is found that the quadratic age-wealth relationship predicted by Modigliani's Life Cycle Hypothesis is evident in aggregate age-median wealth profiles as well as in the micro data for households with positive net worth. However, when adult status attainment variables are entered into the regression models either by themselves or in combination with marital/family status variables, the age of household head at which net worth begins to decline is far beyond the typical retirement age. In addition, the traditional criterion variables of sociological status attainment theory-educational attainment, occupational status, and earnings-are found to be positively associated with household net worth, although the net effect of occupational status generally is not statistically significant and the earnings effect is nonlinear. Further, consistent with status attainment theory, householder minority status (black, Hispanic) is negatively associated with the accumulation of net worth. It is found that both single male and single female householder status are negatively associated with the accumulation of household net worth (relative to married couple households) as is the size of the household (measured by the number of children under age 18 present). Separate logistic regression analyses show that households with zero and negative net worth are more likely than households with positive net worth to be black and have low earnings. Higher levels of educational and occupational status attainment reduce the probability of zero net worth but not the probability of negative net worth. Male- and female-headed households and households headed by Hispanics also are more likely to have zero net worth, but not negative net worth. The estimated sociodemographic covariate structures of household net worth are found to exhibit substantial stability across both waves and panels in the SIPP-although effects of the 1990-1991 recession are detectable in estimates for the 1990 panel. Possible applications of the estimated models in demographic projections of household net worth are suggested.

          • PW Rountree and KC Land.
          • (1996).
          • Perceived risk versus fear of crime: Empirical evidence of conceptually distinct reactions in survey data.
          • SOCIAL FORCES
          • ,
          • 74
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 1353-1376.
          • [web]
          • KC Land and DS Nagin.
          • (1996).
          • Micro-models of criminal careers: A synthesis of the criminal careers and life course approaches via semiparametric mixed Poisson regression models, with empirical applications.
          • JOURNAL OF QUANTITATIVE CRIMINOLOGY
          • ,
          • 12
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 163-191.
          • [web]
          • KC Land and R McCleary.
          • (1996).
          • Missing time-series data and the impact of sentencing guidelines in Minnesota: Can the debate be adjudicated.
          • CRIMINOLOGY
          • ,
          • 34
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 281-288.
          • [web]
          • KC Land, PL McCall and DS Nagin.
          • (1996).
          • A comparison of Poisson, negative binomial, and semiparametric mixed Poisson regression models - With empirical applications to criminal careers data.
          • SOCIOLOGICAL METHODS & RESEARCH
          • ,
          • 24
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 387-442.
          • [web]
          • PW Rountree and KC Land.
          • (1996).
          • Burglary victimization, perceptions of crime risk, and routine activities: A multilevel analysis across Seattle neighborhoods and census tracts.
          • JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN CRIME AND DELINQUENCY
          • ,
          • 33
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 147-180.
          • [web]
          • KENNETHC LAND, LM PATRICIA and DANIELS NAGIN.
          • (1996).
          • A Comparison of Poisson, Negative Binomial, and Semiparametric Mixed Poisson Regression Models.
          • Sociological Methods & Research
          • ,
          • 24
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 387-442.
          Publication Description

          Specifications and moment properties of the univariate Poisson and negative binomial distributions are briefly reviewed and illustrated. Properties and limitations of the corresponding poisson and negative binomial (gamma mixtures of Poissons) regression models are described. It is shown how a misspecification of the mixing distribution of a mixed Poisson model to accommodate hidden heterogeneity ascribable to unobserved variables—although not affecting the consistency of maximum likelihood estimators of the Poisson mean rate parameter or its regression parameterization—can lead to inflated t ratios of regression coefficients and associated incorrect inferences. Then the recently developed semiparametric maximum likelihood estimator for regression models composed of arbitrary mixtures of Poisson processes is specified and further developed. It is concluded that the semiparametric mixed Poisson regression model adds considerable flexibility to Poisson-family regression models and provides opportunities for interpretation of empirical patterns not available in the conventional approaches.

          • K LAND.
          • (1995).
          • STATISTICAL INDICATORS FOR THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL-SCIENCES - HORN,RV.
          • SOCIAL INDICATORS RESEARCH
          • ,
          • 34
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 414-417.
          • [web]
          • DC Nath, KC Land and KK Singh.
          • (1995).
          • A Waiting Time Distribution for the First Conception and Its Application to a Non-Contracepting Traditional Society.
          • Genus
          • ,
          • LI
          • (1-2)
          • ,
          • 95-103.
          • D Linz, E Donnerstein, BJ Shafer, KC Land, PL McCall and AC Graesser.
          • (1995).
          • Discrepancies between the Legal Code and Community Standards for Sex and Violence: An Empirical Challenge to Traditional Assumptions in Obscenity Law.
          • Law and Society Review
          • ,
          • 29
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 127-168.
          • K LAND, W DAVIS and J BLAU.
          • (1994).
          • ORGANIZING THE BOYS OF SUMMER - THE EVOLUTION OF US MINOR-LEAGUE BASEBALL, 1883-1990.
          • AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY
          • ,
          • 100
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 781-813.
          • [web]
          • DC Nath, KC Land and KK Singh.
          • (1994).
          • Birth spacing, breastfeeding, and early child mortality in a traditional Indian society: a hazards model analysis..
          • Social biology
          • ,
          • 41
          • (3-4)
          • ,
          • 168-180.
          Publication Description

          There are few studies of the interrelationships among breastfeeding, child spacing, and child mortality in traditional societies that incorporate extensive controls for social and demographic characteristics of the mother and child. In this paper, we investigate the impact of breastfeeding and the length of the preceding birth interval on early child mortality (defined as a death in the first two years of life) using data from a traditional society of India. Multivariate hazards models are used to analyze the data. Most prior analyses related the impact of breastfeeding duration to the duration of child survivability by taking breastfeeding as a fixed covariate. The present study has a methodological focus in the sense that breastfeeding information from retrospective survey data is treated as a time-dependent covariate both as a status variate as well as a duration--with empirical findings compared across the two specifications. The effects of postpartum amenorrhoea and various other demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of mother and child are also studied. The results suggest that breastfeeding duration has a strong impact in reducing the relative risk of early child mortality; but it does not explain the effect of the length of the preceding birth interval on early child mortality.

          • P ROUNTREE, K LAND and T MIETHE.
          • (1994).
          • MACRO-MICRO INTEGRATION IN THE STUDY OF VICTIMIZATION - A HIERARCHICAL LOGISTIC MODEL ANALYSIS ACROSS SEATTLE NEIGHBORHOODS.
          • CRIMINOLOGY
          • ,
          • 32
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 387-414.
          • [web]
          • KC Land, PL McCall and KF Parker.
          • (1994).
          • Logistic Versus Hazards Regression Analyses in Evaluation Research: An Exposition and Application to the North Carolina Court Counselors' Intensive Protective Supervision Project.
          • Evaluation Review
          • ,
          • 18
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 411-437.
          • [web]
          • DC Nath and KC Land.
          • (1994).
          • Sex preference and third birth intervals in a traditional Indian society..
          • J Biosoc Sci
          • ,
          • 26
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 377-388.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          The traditional preference for sons may be the main hindrance to India's current population policy of two children per family. In this study, the effects of various sociodemographic covariates, particularly sex preference, on the length of the third birth interval are examined for the scheduled caste population in Assam, India. Life table and hazards regression techniques are applied to retrospective sample data. The analysis shows that couples having two surviving sons are less likely to have a third child than those without a surviving son and those with only one surviving son. Age at first marriage, length of preceding birth intervals, age of mother, and household income have strong effects on the length of the third birth interval.

          • K LAND, C LOVELL and S THORE.
          • (1994).
          • PRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY UNDER CAPITALISM AND STATE SOCIALISM - AN EMPIRICAL INQUIRY USING CHANCE-CONSTRAINED DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS.
          • TECHNOLOGICAL FORECASTING AND SOCIAL CHANGE
          • ,
          • 46
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 139-152.
          • [web]
          • KC Land, JM Guralnik and DG Blazer.
          • (1994).
          • Estimating increment-decrement life tables with multiple covariates from panel data: the case of active life expectancy..
          • Demography
          • ,
          • 31
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 297-319.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          A fundamental limitation of current multistate life table methodology-evident in recent estimates of active life expectancy for the elderly-is the inability to estimate tables from data on small longitudinal panels in the presence of multiple covariates (such as sex, race, and socioeconomic status). This paper presents an approach to such an estimation based on an isomorphism between the structure of the stochastic model underlying a conventional specification of the increment-decrement life table and that of Markov panel regression models for simple state spaces. We argue that Markov panel regression procedures can be used to provide smoothed or graduated group-specific estimates of transition probabilities that are more stable across short age intervals than those computed directly from sample data. We then join these estimates with increment-decrement life table methods to compute group-specific total, active, and dependent life expectancy estimates. To illustrate the methods, we describe an empirical application to the estimation of such life expectancies specific to sex, race, and education (years of school completed) for a longitudinal panel of elderly persons. We find that education extends both total life expectancy and active life expectancy. Education thus may serve as a powerful social protective mechanism delaying the onset of health problems at older ages.

          • DC Nath, KC Land and KK Singh.
          • (1994).
          • The role of breast-feeding beyond postpartum amenorrhoea on the return of fertility in India: a life table and hazards model analysis..
          • J Biosoc Sci
          • ,
          • 26
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 191-206.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          This paper investigates the effects of continued breast-feeding after resumption of menses on fertility, using data from two retrospective surveys in India and single decrement life table and multivariate time-dependent hazards analyses. Breast-feeding even after the return of menses is found to be associated with longer birth intervals. The interaction of breast-feeding duration after resumption of menses and postpartum amenorrhoea has a significant effect on the risk of conception after return of menses.

          • P MCCALL and K LAND.
          • (1994).
          • TRENDS IN WHITE MALE-ADOLESCENT, YOUNG-ADULT, AND ELDERLY SUICIDE - ARE THERE COMMON UNDERLYING STRUCTURAL FACTORS.
          • SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH
          • ,
          • 23
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 57-81.
          • [web]
          • DC Nath, KC Land, KK Singh and PK Talukdar.
          • (1994).
          • Most Recent Birth Intervals in a Traditional Society: A Life Table and Hazards Regression Analysis.
          • Canadian Studies in Population
          • ,
          • 21
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 149-164.
          • J BLAU, K REDDING and K LAND.
          • (1993).
          • ETHNOCULTURAL CLEAVAGES AND THE GROWTH OF CHURCH MEMBERSHIP IN THE UNITED-STATES, 1860-1930.
          • SOCIOLOGICAL FORUM
          • ,
          • 8
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 609-637.
          • [web]
          • KC Land, CAK Lovell and S Thore.
          • (1993).
          • Chance-Constrained Data Envelopment Analysis.
          • Managerial and Decision Economics
          • ,
          • 14
          • ,
          • 541-554.
          • DC Nath, KK Singh, KC Land and PK Talukdar.
          • (1993).
          • Age of marriage and length of the first birth interval in a traditional Indian society: life table and hazards model analysis..
          • Hum Biol
          • ,
          • 65
          • (5)
          • ,
          • 783-797.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          The length of the first birth interval is one of the strongest and most persistent factors affecting fertility in noncontracepting populations, with longer intervals usually associated with lower fertility. Compared to Western society, the average length of the first birth interval is much longer in traditional Indian society. Yet Indian fertility rates are higher because of either ineffective family planning procedures or deliberate nonuse of birth control and because of the high proportion of the population that is married. Here, we examine the effects of various sociodemographic covariates (with an emphasis on the role of age at marriage) on the length of the first birth interval for two states of India: Assam and Uttar Pradesh. Life table and multivariate hazards modeling techniques are applied to the data. Covariates such as age at marriage, present age of mother, female's occupation, family income, and place of residence have strong effects on the variation of the length of the first birth interval. For each subgroup of females (classified according to different levels of the covariates), the median length of the first birth interval for the Assam (Bengali-speaking) sample is shorter than that of the Uttar Pradesh (Hindi-speaking) sample.

          • K LAND.
          • (1993).
          • DISCRIMINATORY ELECTORAL PRACTICES, CONTEXTUAL EFFECTS, AND A NEW DOUBLE REGRESSION METHOD FOR THE COURTS.
          • SOCIAL SCIENCE QUARTERLY
          • ,
          • 74
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 469-470.
          • [web]
          • D NAGIN and K LAND.
          • (1993).
          • AGE, CRIMINAL CAREERS, AND POPULATION HETEROGENEITY - SPECIFICATION AND ESTIMATION OF A NONPARAMETRIC, MIXED POISSON MODEL.
          • CRIMINOLOGY
          • ,
          • 31
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 327-362.
          • [web]
          • JM Guralnik, KC Land, D Blazer, GG Fillenbaum and LG Branch.
          • (1993).
          • Educational status and active life expectancy among older blacks and whites..
          • N Engl J Med
          • ,
          • 329
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 110-116.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Persons of low socioeconomic status are known to have reduced life expectancy. In a study of the relation of socioeconomic status to disability-free or active life expectancy among older persons, we analyzed prospectively gathered data on 2219 blacks and 1838 whites who were 65 years of age or older in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. We defined disability as the inability to perform independently one or more basic functional activities such as walking, bathing, dressing, eating, and using the toilet. For subgroups defined by sex, race, and education, statistical models were used to estimate, for persons at each year of age, the probability of transition from not being disabled or being disabled at base line to not being disabled, being disabled, or having died one year later. These transition probabilities were then entered into increment-decrement life tables to generate estimates of total, active, and disabled life expectancy (with total life expectancy equal to active life expectancy plus disabled life expectancy). RESULTS: Sixty-five-year-old black men had a lower total life expectancy (11.4 years) and active life expectancy (10 years) than white men (total life expectancy, 12.6 years; active life expectancy, 11.2 years), although the differences were reduced after we controlled for education. The estimates for 65-year-old black women (total life expectancy, 18.7 years; active life expectancy, 15.9 years) were similar to those for white women. Black men and women 75 years old and older had higher values for total life expectancy and active life expectancy than whites, and the differences were larger after stratification for education. Education had a substantially stronger relation to total life expectancy and active life expectancy than did race. At the age of 65, those with 12 or more years of education had an active life expectancy that was 2.4 to 3.9 years longer than the values for those with less education in all the four subgroups defined by sex and race. Overall, the subgroups with longer total life expectancy and active life expectancy also lived more years with a disability. CONCLUSIONS: Among older blacks and whites, the level of education, a measure of socioeconomic status, has a greater effect than race on total life expectancy and active life expectancy.

          • K LAND.
          • (1993).
          • DEMOGRAPHIC-ANALYSIS - A STOCHASTIC APPROACH - NAMBOODIRI,K.
          • POPULATION STUDIES-A JOURNAL OF DEMOGRAPHY
          • ,
          • 47
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 178-179.
          • [web]
          • DC Nath, KK Singh, KC Land and PK Talukdar.
          • (1993).
          • Breastfeeding and postpartum amenorrhea in a traditional society: a hazards model analysis..
          • Social biology
          • ,
          • 40
          • (1-2)
          • ,
          • 74-86.
          Publication Description

          There is considerable variation in the length of the postpartum amenorrhea during which breastfeeding suppresses fertility, both within and between societies. In this paper, we investigate the association between breastfeeding and the resumption of menses and the impact of various biological and social covariates thereon, using data from two retrospective surveys in India. We use both univariate life table and multivariate time-dependent hazards techniques to analyze the data. Most prior investigations related the impact of breastfeeding to postpartum amenorrhea by taking duration of breastfeeding as a fixed covariate. However, breastfeeding beyond the resumption of menstruation cannot affect the duration of menses. Accordingly, the present study has a methodological focus in the sense that breastfeeding is treated as a time-dependent covariate. We found that breastfeeding, age of mother at child's birth, social status, level of income, religion and caste (subcaste), and residential status have significant effects on return of menses in Indian traditional society.

          • K LAND.
          • (1993).
          • PREDICTIONS - SOCIETY TELLTALE SIGNATURE REVEALS THE PAST AND FORECASTS THE FUTURE - MODIS,T.
          • SCIENCE
          • ,
          • 259
          • (5099)
          • ,
          • 1349-1350.
          • [web]
          • KC LAND and PL McCALL.
          • (1993).
          • Estimating the Effect of Nonignorable Nonresponse in Sample Surveys: An Application of Rubin's Bayesian Method to the Estimation of Community Standards for Obscenity.
          • Sociological Methods & Research
          • ,
          • 21
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 291-316.
          • [web]
          • DC Nath, KK Singh, KC Land and PK Talukdar.
          • (1993).
          • Breast-Feeding and Post-Partum Amenorrhea in a Traditional Society: A Hazards Model Analysis.
          • Social Biology
          • ,
          • 40
          • ,
          • 74-86.
          • J BLAU, K LAND and K REDDING.
          • (1992).
          • THE EXPANSION OF RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION - AN EXPLANATION OF THE GROWTH OF CHURCH PARTICIPATION IN THE UNITED-STATES, 1850-1930.
          • SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH
          • ,
          • 21
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 329-352.
          • [web]
          • D AHLBURG and K LAND.
          • (1992).
          • POPULATION FORECASTING - GUEST EDITORS INTRODUCTION.
          • INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FORECASTING
          • ,
          • 8
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 289-299.
          • [web]
          • P MCCALL, K LAND and L COHEN.
          • (1992).
          • VIOLENT CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR - IS THERE A GENERAL AND CONTINUING INFLUENCE OF THE SOUTH.
          • SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH
          • ,
          • 21
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 286-310.
          • [web]
          • K LAND.
          • (1992).
          • MODELS OF CRIMINAL CAREERS - SOME SUGGESTIONS FOR MOVING BEYOND THE CURRENT DEBATE.
          • CRIMINOLOGY
          • ,
          • 30
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 149-155.
          • [web]
          • K LAND, C LOVELL and S THORE.
          • (1992).
          • PRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY UNDER CAPITALISM AND STATE SOCIALISM - THE CHANCE-CONSTRAINED PROGRAMMING APPROACH.
          • PUBLIC FINANCE-FINANCES PUBLIQUES
          • ,
          • 47
          • ,
          • 109-121.
          • [web]
          • KC Land and G Deane.
          • (1992).
          • On the Large-Sample Estimation of Regression Models with Spatial or Network Effects Terms: A Two-Stage Least Squares Approach.
          • Sociological Methodology
          • ,
          • 22
          • ,
          • 221-248.
          • D CANTOR and K LAND.
          • (1991).
          • EXPLORING POSSIBLE TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIPS OF UNEMPLOYMENT AND CRIME - A COMMENT ON HALE AND SABBAGH.
          • JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN CRIME AND DELINQUENCY
          • ,
          • 28
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 418-425.
          • [web]
          • K LAND.
          • (1991).
          • THE FUTURE OF METAANALYSIS - WACHTER,KW, STRAF,ML.
          • CONTEMPORARY SOCIOLOGY-A JOURNAL OF REVIEWS
          • ,
          • 20
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 648-650.
          • [web]
          • K LAND, P MCCALL and L COHEN.
          • (1991).
          • CHARACTERISTICS OF UNITED-STATES CITIES WITH EXTREME (HIGH OR LOW) CRIME RATES - RESULTS OF DISCRIMINANT ANALYSES OF 1960, 1970, AND 1980 DATA.
          • SOCIAL INDICATORS RESEARCH
          • ,
          • 24
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 209-231.
          • [web]
          • K LAND, G DEANE and J BLAU.
          • (1991).
          • RELIGIOUS PLURALISM AND CHURCH MEMBERSHIP - A SPATIAL DIFFUSION-MODEL.
          • AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW
          • ,
          • 56
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 237-249.
          • [web]
          • D LINZ, E DONNERSTEIN, K LAND, P MCCALL, J SCOTT, B SHAFER, L KLEIN and L LANCE.
          • (1991).
          • ESTIMATING COMMUNITY STANDARDS - THE USE OF SOCIAL-SCIENCE EVIDENCE IN AN OBSCENITY PROSECUTION.
          • PUBLIC OPINION QUARTERLY
          • ,
          • 55
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 80-112.
          • [web]
          • KC Land, PL McCall and JR Williams.
          • (1990).
          • Something That Works in Juvenile Justice: An Evaluation of the North Carolina Court Counselors' Intensive Protective Supervision Randomized Experimental Project, 1987-1989.
          • Evaluation Review
          • ,
          • 14
          • (6)
          • ,
          • 574-606.
          • [web]
          • K LAND.
          • (1990).
          • STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING WITH LISREL - ESSENTIALS AND ADVANCES - HAYDUK,LA.
          • SOCIAL FORCES
          • ,
          • 69
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 338-339.
          • [web]
          • K LAND, P MCCALL and L COHEN.
          • (1990).
          • STRUCTURAL COVARIATES OF HOMICIDE RATES - ARE THERE ANY INVARIANCES ACROSS TIME AND SOCIAL SPACE.
          • AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY
          • ,
          • 95
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 922-963.
          • [web]
          • M CHEN and K LAND.
          • (1990).
          • SOCIOECONOMIC-STATUS (SES) AND THE HEALTH BELIEF MODEL - LISREL ANALYSIS OF UNIDIMENSIONAL VERSUS MULTIDIMENSIONAL FORMULATIONS.
          • JOURNAL OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND PERSONALITY
          • ,
          • 5
          • (5)
          • ,
          • 263-284.
          • [web]
          • M-S Chen and KC Land.
          • (1990).
          • Socioeconomic Status, Health Beliefs and Preventive Dental Behavior.
          • Journal of Social Behavior and Personality
          • ,
          • 5
          • ,
          • 263-284.
          • K LAND.
          • (1989).
          • MIGRATION AND POLITICS - THE IMPACT OF POPULATION MOBILITY ON AMERICAN VOTING-BEHAVIOR - BROWN,TA.
          • CONTEMPORARY SOCIOLOGY-A JOURNAL OF REVIEWS
          • ,
          • 18
          • (5)
          • ,
          • 729-731.
          • [web]
          • C CALHOUN, K LAND, L COSER, C CLOGG, W FORM, J QUADAGNO, A STINCHCOMBE, W POWELL, J GIBBS, J ABULUGHOD, J SHORT, A SICA, H WINSBOROUGH and K ERIKSON.
          • (1989).
          • HANDBOOK OF SOCIOLOGY - SMELSER,NJ.
          • CONTEMPORARY SOCIOLOGY-A JOURNAL OF REVIEWS
          • ,
          • 18
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 475-513.
          • [web]
          • K LAND.
          • (1989).
          • PREDICTING RECIDIVISM USING SURVIVAL MODELS - SCHMIDT,P, WITTE,AD.
          • CONTEMPORARY SOCIOLOGY-A JOURNAL OF REVIEWS
          • ,
          • 18
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 245-246.
          • [web]
          • K LAND and G HOUGH.
          • (1989).
          • NEW METHODS FOR TABLES OF SCHOOL LIFE, WITH APPLICATIONS TO UNITED-STATES DATA FROM RECENT SCHOOL YEARS.
          • JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION
          • ,
          • 84
          • (405)
          • ,
          • 63-75.
          • [web]
          • K LAND.
          • (1988).
          • LIFE TABLE TECHNIQUES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS - NAMBOODIRI,K, SUCHINDRAN,CM.
          • AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY
          • ,
          • 93
          • (5)
          • ,
          • 1296-1299.
          • [web]
          • Kenneth C. Land and Stephen H. Schneider.
          • (1987).
          • “Forecasting in the Social and Natural Sciences: An Overview and Analysis of Isomorphisms,”.
          • Climatic Change
          • ,
          • 11
          • ,
          • 7-31.
          • K LAND.
          • (1987).
          • BASIC DILEMMAS IN THE SOCIAL-SCIENCES - BLALOCK,HM.
          • CONTEMPORARY SOCIOLOGY-A JOURNAL OF REVIEWS
          • ,
          • 16
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 446-447.
          • [web]
          • L COHEN and K LAND.
          • (1987).
          • AGE STRUCTURE AND CRIME - SYMMETRY VERSUS ASYMMETRY AND THE PROJECTION OF CRIME RATES THROUGH THE 1990S.
          • AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW
          • ,
          • 52
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 170-183.
          • [web]
          • K LAND.
          • (1987).
          • COMMUNITIES AND CRIME - REISS,AJ, TONRY,M.
          • POLICY SCIENCES
          • ,
          • 20
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 176-178.
          • [web]
          • K LAND, R MCCLEARY and J MERCY.
          • (1987).
          • DAY EFFECTS IN TOTAL UNITED-STATES SUICIDES - 1972-1981.
          • POPULATION INDEX
          • ,
          • 53
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 387-388.
          • [web]
          • K LAND.
          • (1986).
          • METHODS FOR NATIONAL-POPULATION FORECASTS - A REVIEW.
          • JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION
          • ,
          • 81
          • (396)
          • ,
          • 888-901.
          • [web]
          • K LAND.
          • (1986).
          • POLICY INDICATORS - LINKS BETWEEN SOCIAL-SCIENCE AND PUBLIC DEBATE - MACRAE,D.
          • SOCIAL FORCES
          • ,
          • 65
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 260-262.
          • [web]
          • K LAND, G HOUGH and M MCMILLEN.
          • (1986).
          • VOTING STATUS LIFE-TABLES FOR THE UNITED-STATES, 1968-1980.
          • DEMOGRAPHY
          • ,
          • 23
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 381-402.
          • [web]
          • K LAND.
          • (1986).
          • SOCIAL SYSTEM ACCOUNTS - LINKING SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC INDICATORS THROUGH TANGIBLE BEHAVIOR SETTINGS - FOX,KA.
          • CONTEMPORARY SOCIOLOGY-A JOURNAL OF REVIEWS
          • ,
          • 15
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 664-665.
          • [web]
          • K LAND and G HOUGH.
          • (1986).
          • IMPROVING THE ACCURACY OF INTERCENSAL ESTIMATES AND POSTCENSAL PROJECTIONS OF THE CIVILIAN NONINSTITUTIONAL POPULATION - A PARAMETERIZATION OF INSTITUTIONAL PREVALENCE RATES.
          • JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION
          • ,
          • 81
          • (393)
          • ,
          • 62-74.
          • [web]
          • K LAND and G HOUGH.
          • (1986).
          • ON THE COMBINATION OF PREVALENCE RATE AND INCREMENT-DECREMENT METHODS FOR TABLES OF SCHOOL LIFE.
          • POPULATION INDEX
          • ,
          • 52
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 422-422.
          • [web]
          • M-S Chen and KC Land.
          • (1986).
          • Testing the Health Belief Model: LISREL Analyses of Alternative Models of Causal Relationships Between Health Beliefs and Preventive Dental Behavior.
          • Social Psychology Quarterly
          • ,
          • 49
          • ,
          • 45-60.
          • D Cantor and KC Land.
          • (1985).
          • Unemployment and Crime Rates in the Post-World War II United States: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis.
          • American Sociological Review
          • ,
          • 50
          • ,
          • 317-332.
          • KC Land, J George C Hough and MM McMillen.
          • (1984).
          • New Midyear Age-Sex-Color-Specific Estimates of the U.S. Population for the 1940s and 1950s: Including a Revision of Coverage Estimates for the 1940 and 1950 Censuses.
          • Demography
          • ,
          • 21
          • ,
          • 623-645.
          • LE Cohen and KC Land.
          • (1984).
          • Discrepancies Between Crime Reports and Crime Surveys: Urban and Structural Determinants.
          • Criminology
          • ,
          • 22
          • ,
          • 499-530.
          • KC Land and D Cantor.
          • (1983).
          • ARIMA Models of Seasonal Variation in U.S. Birth and Death Rates.
          • Demography
          • ,
          • 20
          • ,
          • 541-568.
          • LE Cohen, JR Kluegel and KC Land.
          • (1983).
          • Insinuating Informality: A Reply to Breen and Rottman.
          • American Sociological Review
          • ,
          • 48
          • ,
          • 143-145.
          • KC Land.
          • (1983).
          • Social Indicators.
          • Annual Review of Sociology
          • ,
          • 9
          • ,
          • 1-26.
          • KC Land.
          • (1982).
          • Social Indicators: Past Developments and Prospects for the Future.
          • Journal of the Institute for Advanced Studies
          • ,
          • 6
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 193-220.
          • Vienna.
          • LE Cohen, JR Kluegel and KC Land.
          • (1981).
          • Social Inequality and Predatory Criminal Victimization: An Exposition and Test of a FormalTheory.
          • American Sociological Review
          • ,
          • 46
          • ,
          • 505-524.
          • KC Land and MM McMillen.
          • (1981).
          • Determinants of Morbidity and Disability Trends in the United States, 1958-77.
          • Social Indicators Research
          • ,
          • 9
          • ,
          • 313-346.
          • KC Land.
          • (1981).
          • On the Use of ’Hard’ and ’Soft’ Methodologies in Sociology.
          • The Sociological Quarterly
          • ,
          • 23
          • ,
          • 452-458.
          • KC Land.
          • (1981).
          • Identification of Socio-Economic Indicators for Use in Integrated Social and Economic Planning.
          • Socio-Economic Studies
          • ,
          • 2
          • ,
          • 505-524.
          • LE Cohen, M Felson and KC Land.
          • (1980).
          • Property Crime Rates in the United States: A Macrodynamic Analysis, 1947-77, with Ex Ante Forecasts for the Mid-1980’s.
          • American Journal of Sociology
          • ,
          • 85
          • ,
          • 90-118.
          • KC Land and MM McMillen.
          • (1980).
          • Demographic Data and Social Indicators.
          • Sociology and Social Research
          • ,
          • 64
          • ,
          • 348-377.
          • MD Evans, M Felson and KC Land.
          • (1980).
          • Developing Social Indicator Research on the Military in American Society.
          • Social Indicators Research
          • ,
          • 8
          • ,
          • 81-102.
          • KC Land and FC Pampel.
          • (1980).
          • Aggregate Male and Female Labor Force Participation Functions: An Analysis of Structural Differences, 1947-77.
          • Social Science Research
          • ,
          • 9
          • ,
          • 37-54.
          • KC Land and MM McMillen.
          • (1980).
          • A Macrodynamic Analysis of Changes in Mortality Indexes in the United States, 1947-75: Some Preliminary Results.
          • Social Indicators Research
          • ,
          • 7
          • ,
          • 1-46.
          • R Schoen and KC Land.
          • (1979).
          • A General Algorithm for Estimating a Markov-Generated Increment-Decrement Life Table with Applications to Marital Status Patterns.
          • Journal of the American Statistical Association
          • ,
          • 74
          • ,
          • 761-776.
          • KC Land.
          • (1979).
          • Modeling Macro Social Change.
          • Sociological Methodology
          • ,
          • 219-278.
          • KC Land and M Felson.
          • (1978).
          • Sensitivity Analysis of Arbitrarily Identified Simultaneous-Equation Models.
          • Sociological Methods and Research
          • ,
          • 6
          • ,
          • 283-301.
          • M Felson and KC Land.
          • (1978).
          • Social, Demographic, and Economic Interrelationships with Educational Trends in the United States, 1947-74.
          • Research in Population Economics: An Annual Compilation of Research
          • ,
          • 1
          • ,
          • 93-125.
          • FC Pampel, KC Land and M Felson.
          • (1977).
          • A Social Indicator Model of Changes in the Occupational Structure of the United States: 1947-74.
          • American Sociological Review
          • ,
          • 42
          • ,
          • 951-964.
          • KC Land and M Felson.
          • (1977).
          • A Dynamic Macro Social Indicator Model of Changes in Marriage, Family, and Population in the United States: 1947-74.
          • Social Science Research
          • ,
          • 6
          • ,
          • 328-362.
          • KC Land and FC Pampel.
          • (1977).
          • Indicators and Models of Changes in the American Occupational System, 1947-73: Some Preliminary Analyses.
          • Social Indicators Research
          • ,
          • 4
          • ,
          • 1-23.
          • KC Land and M Felson.
          • (1976).
          • A General Framework for Building Dynamic Macro Social Indicator Models: Including an Analysis of Changes in Crime Rates and Police Expenditures.
          • American Journal of Sociology
          • ,
          • 82
          • ,
          • 565-604.
          • KC Land.
          • (1975).
          • The Role of Quality of Employment Indicators in General Social Reporting Systems.
          • American Behavioral Scientist
          • ,
          • 304-322.
          • KC Land.
          • (1975).
          • Theories, Models and Indicators of Social Change.
          • International Social Science Journal
          • ,
          • 27
          • ,
          • 7-37.
          • EB Sheldon and KC Land.
          • (1972).
          • Social Reporting for the 1970’s.
          • Policy Sciences
          • ,
          • 3
          • ,
          • 137-151.
          • KC Land.
          • (1971).
          • Significant Others, the Self-Reflexive Act and the Attitude Formation Process: A Reinterpretation.
          • American Sociological Review
          • ,
          • 36
          • ,
          • 1085-1098.
          • KC Land.
          • (1971).
          • On the Definition of Social Indicators.
          • The American Sociologist
          • ,
          • 6
          • ,
          • 322-325.
          • KC Land.
          • (1971).
          • Some Exhaustible Poisson Process Models of Divorce by Marriage Cohort.
          • Journal of Mathematical Sociology
          • ,
          • 11
          • ,
          • 474-484.
          • KC Land.
          • (1971).
          • Formal Theory.
          • Sociological Methodology
          • ,
          • 175-200.
          • KC Land.
          • (1970).
          • On the Estimation of Path Coefficients for Unmeasured Variables from Correlations Among Observed Variables.
          • Social Forces
          • ,
          • 48
          • ,
          • 506-511.
          • KC Land.
          • (1970).
          • Path Models of Functional Theories of Social Stratification as Representations of Cultural Beliefs on Stratification.
          • The Sociological Quarterly
          • ,
          • 11
          • ,
          • 474-484.
          • KC Land.
          • (1970).
          • Mathematical Formalization of Durkheim’s Theory of Division of Labor.
          • Sociological Methodology
          • ,
          • 257-282.
          • KC Land.
          • (1969).
          • Duration of Residence and Prospective Migration: Further Evidence.
          • Demography
          • ,
          • 6
          • ,
          • 133-140.
          • KC Land.
          • (1968).
          • Principles of Path Analysis.
          • Sociological Methodology
          • ,
          • 1969
          • ,
          • 1-37.
      • Articles and Chapters

          • Sarah O. Meadows, Kenneth C. Land, and Vicki L. Lamb.
          • (January, 2005).
          • Assessing Gilligan Versus Sommers: Gender-Specific Trends in Child and Youth Well-Being in the United States, 1985-2001.
          • Social Indicators Research
          • .
          • VA Freedman, E Crimmins, RF Schoeni, BC Spillman, H Aykan, E Kramarow, K Land, J Lubitz, K Manton, LG Martin, D Shinberg and T Waidmann.
          • (August, 2004).
          • Resolving inconsistencies in trends in old-age disability: report from a technical working group..
          • Demography
          • ,
          • 41
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 417-441.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          In September 2002, a technical working group met to resolve previously published inconsistencies across national surveys in trends in activity limitations among the older population. The 12-person panel prepared estimates from five national data sets and investigated methodological sources of the inconsistencies among the population aged 70 and older from the early 1980s to 2001. Although the evidence was mixed for the 1980s and it is difficult to pinpoint when in the 1990s the decline began, during the mid- and late 1990s, the panel found consistent declines on the order of 1%-2.5% per year for two commonly used measures in the disability literature: difficulty with daily activities and help with daily activities. Mixed evidence was found for a third measure: the use of help or equipment with daily activities. The panel also found agreement across surveys that the proportion of older persons who receive help with bathing has declined at the same time as the proportion who use only equipment (but not personal care) to bathe has increased. In comparing findings across surveys, the panel found that the period, definition of disability, treatment of the institutionalized population, and age standardizing of results were important to consider. The implications of the findings for policy, national survey efforts, and further research are discussed.

          • J Hamil-Luker, KC Land and J Blau.
          • (June, 2004).
          • Diverse trajectories of cocaine use through early adulthood among rebellious and socially conforming youth.
          • SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH
          • ,
          • 33
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 300-321.
          • [web]
          • PL McCall and KC Land.
          • (June, 2004).
          • Trends in environmental lead exposure and troubled youth, 1960-1995: an age-period-cohort-characteristic analysis.
          • SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH
          • ,
          • 33
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 339-359.
          • [web]
          • Y Zeng, D Gu and KC Land.
          • (May, 2004).
          • A new method for correcting under-estimation of disabled life expectancy and an application to the Chinese oldest-old..
          • Demography
          • ,
          • 41
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 335-361.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          This article demonstrates that disabled life expectancies that are based on conventional multistate life-table methods are significantly underestimated because of the assumption of no changes in functional status between age x and death. We present a new method to correct the bias and apply it to data from a longitudinal survey of about 9,000 oldest-old Chinese aged 80-105 collected in 1998 and 2000. In our application, the age trajectories of disability (activities of daily living--ADL), status-specific death rates, and the probabilities of transitions between ADL states of the oldest-old were investigated for the first time in a developing country. In this article, we report estimates of bias-corrected disabled and active life expectancies of the Chinese oldest-old and demonstrate patterns of large differences associated with initial status, gender, and advances in ages. Using combined information on ADL disabilities and length of having been bedridden before dying, we analyze gender and age patterns of the extent of morbidity before dying among the oldest-old and their implications for debates on the hypothesis of compression of morbidity.

          • D Linz, KC Land, JR Williams, B Paul and ME Ezell.
          • (2004).
          • An Examination of the Assumption that Adult Businesses Are Associated with Crime in Surrounding Areas: A Secondary Effects Study in Charlotte, North Carolina.
          • Law and Society Review
          • ,
          • 38
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 69-104+1-3.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          Recent Supreme Court decisions have signaled the need for sound empirical studies of the secondary effects of adult businesses on the surrounding areas for use in conjunction with local zoning restrictions. This study seeks to determine whether a relationship exists between adult erotic dance clubs and negative secondary effects in the form of increased numbers of crimes reported in the areas surrounding the adult businesses, in Charlotte, North Carolina. For each of 20 businesses, a control site (matched on the basis of demographic characteristics related to crime risk) is compared for crime events over the period of three years (1998-2000) using data on crime incidents reported to the police. We find that the presence of an adult nightclub does not increase the number of crime incidents reported in localized areas surrounding the club (defined by circular areas of 500- and 1,000-foot radii) as compared to the number of crime incidents reported in comparable localized areas that do not contain such an adult business. Indeed, the analyses imply the opposite, namely, that the nearby areas surrounding the adult business sites have smaller numbers of reported crime incidents than do corresponding areas surrounding the three control sites studied. These findings are interpreted in terms of the business mandates of profitability and continuity of existence of the businesses.

          • Y Yang, WJJ Fu and KC Land.
          • (2004).
          • A methodological comparison of age-period-cohort models: The intrinsic estimator and conventional generalized linear models.
          • SOCIOLOGICAL METHODOLOGY, 2004, VOL 34
          • ,
          • 34
          • ,
          • 75-110.
          • [web]
          • ME Ezell, KC Land and LE Cohen.
          • (2003).
          • Modeling multiple failure time data: A survey of variance-corrected proportional hazards models with empirical applications to arrest data.
          • SOCIOLOGICAL METHODOLOGY, VOL 33
          • ,
          • 33
          • ,
          • 111-167.
          • [web]
      • Papers Submitted

          • Q Fu, KC Land and VL Lamb.
          • (2013).
          • School Bullying Victimization: Has There Been a Recent Increase in Exposure or Intensity? An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis in the United States, 1991 to 2010.
          • manual
          • .
          • H Zheng, Y Yang and KC Land.
          • (2013).
          • Increasing Mortality Dispersion in Developed Countries: Aging, Epidemiologic Transition, or Other Mechanisms?.
          • manual
          • .
          • AI Yashin, KG Arbeev, I Akushevich, A Kulminski, SV Ukraintseva, E Stallard and KC Land.
          • (2013).
          • The quadratic hazard model for analyzing longitudinal data on aging, health, and the life span..
          • Phys Life Rev
          • ,
          • 9
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 177-188.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          A better understanding of processes and mechanisms linking human aging with changes in health status and survival requires methods capable of analyzing new data that take into account knowledge about these processes accumulated in the field. In this paper, we describe an approach to analyses of longitudinal data based on the use of stochastic process models of human aging, health, and longevity which allows for incorporating state of the art advances in aging research into the model structure. In particular, the model incorporates the notions of resistance to stresses, adaptive capacity, and "optimal" (normal) physiological states. To capture the effects of exposure to persistent external disturbances, the notions of allostatic adaptation and allostatic load are introduced. These notions facilitate the description and explanation of deviations of individuals' physiological indices from their normal states, which increase the chances of disease development and death. The model provides a convenient conceptual framework for comprehensive systemic analyses of aging-related changes in humans using longitudinal data and linking these changes with genotyping profiles, morbidity, and mortality risks. The model is used for developing new statistical methods for analyzing longitudinal data on aging, health, and longevity.

          • Lawrence R. Landerman, Sarah A. Mustillo, and Kenneth C. Land.
          • (200).
          • Modeling Repeated Measures of Dichotomous Data: Testing Whether the Within-Person Trajectory of Change Varies Across Levels of Between-Person Factors.
          • .
      • Book Reviews

          • KC Land.
          • (2014).
          • Review of “Social Quality: From Theory to Indicators,” edited by Laurent J. G. van der Maesen and Alan Walker.
          • Contemporary Sociology: A Journal of Reviews
          • ,
          • 43
          • ,
          • 102-103.
          • KC Land.
          • (2012).
          • Population-Based Survey Experiments.
          • Contemporary Sociology: A Journal of Reviews
          • ,
          • 41
          • (6)
          • ,
          • 822-823.
          • [web]
          • AC Michalos and KC Land.
          • (2012).
          • A Biography of Abbott L. Ferriss: Pioneer in Quality of Life and Social Indicators Research.
          • Applied Research in Quality of Life
          • ,
          • 7 (December)
          • ,
          • 445-447.
          • [web]
          • KC Land.
          • (2012).
          • Reviews of Web-Based Social Reports, Review 2: The United Nations Development Programme’s Human Development Index (HDI).
          • SINET: Social Indicators Network News
          • .
          • KC Land.
          • (May-August, 2011).
          • Reviews of Web-Based Social Reports, Review 1: The United Kingdom’s Social Statistics.
          • SINET: Social Indicators Network News
          • .
          • KC Land.
          • (March, 2011).
          • Measuring Well-Being in the Netherlands.
          • SINET: Social Indicators Network News
          • ,
          • 105
          • (March)
          • .
          • KC Land.
          • (March, 2011).
          • Keys to Happiness From 100 Prominent Experts From Around the World.
          • SINET: Social Indicators Network News
          • .
          • KC Land.
          • (2011).
          • Measuring Well-Being in the Netherlands.
          • SINET: Social Indicators Network News
          • ,
          • 105
          • (March)
          • .
          • KC Land.
          • (November, 2010).
          • A Human Development Report on America in the Early 2000s.
          • SINET: Social Indicators Network News
          • ,
          • 104
          • (November)
          • .
          • KC Land.
          • (May-August 2010).
          • Happiness and Psychological Capital as Resources for Work and Life.
          • SINET: Social Indicators Network News
          • .
          • KC Land.
          • (May-August 2010).
          • Japanese Sociologists on Passive Happiness.
          • Social Indicators Network News
          • .
          • KC Land.
          • (2010).
          • A Human Development Report on America in the Early 2000s.
          • SINET: Social Indicators Network News,
          • ,
          • 104
          • (November)
          • .
          • KC Land.
          • (November, 2008).
          • Whither Public Sociology? Featured Essay Review.
          • Contemporary Sociology: A Journal of Reviews
          • ,
          • 36
          • ,
          • 507-511.
          • KC Land.
          • (2008).
          • Dick Easterlin’s Reluctance.
          • SINET: Social Indicators Network News
          • ,
          • 93
          • (February)
          • .
          • KC Land.
          • (September, 2007).
          • Understanding crime statistics: Revisiting the divergence of the NCVS and UCR.
          • CONTEMPORARY SOCIOLOGY-A JOURNAL OF REVIEWS
          • ,
          • 36
          • (5)
          • ,
          • 481-482.
          • [web]
          • KC Land.
          • (February, 2007).
          • A UNICEF Report on Child Well-Being in OECD Countries.
          • manual
          • ,
          • 89
          • (February)
          • .
          • KC Land.
          • (September, 2007).
          • Review of “Models for Intensive Longitudinal Data,” edited by Theodore A. Walls and Joseph L. Schafer.
          • American Journal of Sociology
          • ,
          • 113
          • (September)
          • ,
          • 596-598.
          • KC Land.
          • (2007).
          • A UNICEF Report on Child Well-Being in OECD Countries.
          • SINET: Social Indicators Network News
          • ,
          • 89
          • (February)
          • .
          • KC Land.
          • (February, 2006).
          • Quality of Life Therapy For All! review essay on “Quality of Life Therapy: Applying a Life Satisfaction Approach to Positive Psychology and Cognitive Therapy.
          • SINET: Social Indicators Network News
          • .
          • SINET: Social Indicators Network News.
          • (Combined May/August 2006).
          • review essay on Ruut Veenhoven on Why Sociologists Fail to Acknowledge Happiness.
          • .
          • KC Land.
          • (2006).
          • Ruut Veenhoven on Why Sociologists Fail to Acknowledge Happiness.
          • SINET: Social Indicators Network News,
          • ,
          • 86 & 87
          • (May & August)
          • .
          • KC Land.
          • (Combined May/August 2006).
          • review essay on New Estimates of Economic Well-Being for Selected OECD Countries by the Center for the Study of Living Standards.
          • SINET: Social Indicators Network News
          • .
          • KC Land.
          • (Combined May/August 2006).
          • review essay on Wolfgang Glatzer on Comparing the Quality of Life in the European Union and the United States of America.
          • SINET: Social Indicators Network News
          • .
          • KC Land.
          • (2005).
          • Review essay on “Toward National Well-Being Accounts,” by Daniel Kahneman, Alan B. Krueger, David Schkade, Norbert Schwarz, and Arthur Stone.
          • SINET: Social Indicators Network News
          • .
          • KC Land.
          • (November, 2005).
          • Daniel Kahneman and Colleagues on National Well-Being Accounts, review essay on “Toward National Well-Being Accounts,” by Daniel Kahneman, Alan B. Krueger, David Schkade, Norbert Schwarz, and Arthur Stone.
          • SINET: Social Indicators Network News
          • ,
          • 84
          • (November)
          • .
          • KC Land.
          • (2002).
          • Generalized, linear and mixed models..
          • SOCIOLOGICAL METHODS & RESEARCH
          • ,
          • 30
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 583-584.
          • [web]
          • KC Land.
          • (2002).
          • Education, Work and Welfare in Australia, With Comparisons to Other Societies, review essay on “Australian Economy and Society 2001: Education, Work and Welfare,” by M. D. R. Evans and Jonathan Kelley.
          • SINET: Social Indicators Network News
          • ,
          • 72 (November)
          • .
          • KC Land.
          • (2002).
          • review of “Generalized, Linear, and Mixed Models,” by Charles E. McCulloch and Shayle R. Searle.
          • Sociological Methods & Research
          • ,
          • 30
          • ,
          • 583-584.
          • KC Land.
          • (2001).
          • One Hundred Years of Change in Britain, review essay on “Twentieth Century British Social Trends,” edited by A. H. Halsey with Josephine Webb.
          • SINET: Social Indicators Network News
          • ,
          • 66 & 67
          • (May/August)
          • ,
          • 1-7.
          • KC Land.
          • (2000).
          • Has the Recent Epidemic in Adolescent Drug Use in the United States Peaked? Some Recent Findings from the ‘Monitoring the Future Study’,” review essay.
          • SINET: Social Indicators Network News
          • ,
          • 63
          • (August)
          • ,
          • 1-4.
          • KC Land.
          • (2000).
          • A Systems Approach to Social Indicators: The Calvert-Henderson Quality of Life Indicators,” review essay on “Calvert-Henderson Quality of Life Indicators,” edited by Hazel Henderson, Jon Lickerman, and Patrice Flynn.
          • SINET: Social Indicators Network News
          • ,
          • 61 & 62
          • (February/May)
          • ,
          • 1-5.
          • MR Hagerty and KC Land.
          • (1999).
          • The Miringoffs’ Report on the Social Health of the United States: The Index of Social Health,” review essay on “The Social Health of the Nation: How America is Really Doing,” by Marc Miringoff and Marque-Luisa Miringoff.
          • SINET: Social Indicators Network News
          • ,
          • 59
          • (August)
          • ,
          • 1 & 10-3 & 11.
          • KC Land.
          • (1999).
          • How Has Italy Changed Socially in Recent Decades? A New Volume in the Comparative Charting of Social Change Series,” review essay on “Recent Social Trends in Italy 1960-1995,” by Alberto Martenelli, Antonio M. Chiesi, and Sonia Stefanizzi.
          • SINET: Social Indicators Network News
          • ,
          • 58
          • (May)
          • ,
          • 1 & 8-3 & 11.
          • KC Land.
          • (1998).
          • Review of “The Self in the Family: A Classification of Personality, Criminality, and Psychotherapy,” by Luciano L'Abate with the collaboration of Margaret S. Baggett.
          • American Journal of Sociology
          • ,
          • 103
          • (January)
          • ,
          • 1147-1149.
          • KC Land.
          • (1997).
          • A New Report on Living Conditions and Inequality in the European Union 1997, review essay on “Living Conditions and Inequality in the European Union 1997,” by Joachim Vogel.
          • SINET: Social Indicators Network News
          • ,
          • 51
          • (August)
          • ,
          • 8-10.
          • KC Land.
          • (1997).
          • A Primer on American Attitudes, review of 'The Official Guide to American Attitudes,' by Susan Mitchell.
          • SINET: Social Indicators Network News
          • ,
          • 50
          • (May)
          • ,
          • 11-12, 15.
          • KC Land.
          • (1997).
          • Recent Fertility Trends in the United States,” review essay on “Fertility in the United States: New Patterns, New Theories,” edited by John B. Casterline, Ronald D. Lee, and Karen A. Foote.
          • SINET: Social Indicators Network News
          • ,
          • 50
          • (May)
          • ,
          • 6-10.
          • KC Land.
          • (1997).
          • Drug Use Trends in the United States From the Monitoring the Future Study, 1975-1996,” review essay on “National Survey Results on Drug Use from The Monitoring The Future Study, Volume I: Secondary School Students, Volume II: College Students and Young Adults,” by Lloyd D. Johnston, Patrick M. O'Malley, and Jerald G. Bachman.
          • SINET: Social Indicators Network News
          • ,
          • 49
          • (February)
          • ,
          • 4 & 10-7 & 11.
          • KC Land.
          • (1996).
          • Social Indicators and the Quality-of-Life: Where Do We Stand in the Mid-1990s?” Editorial Statement.
          • SINET: Social Indicators Network News
          • ,
          • 45
          • (February)
          • ,
          • 5-8.
          • KC Land.
          • (1996).
          • Review essay on “Australian Social Trends 1994 and Australian Social Trends 1995,” by Australian Bureau of Statistics.
          • SINET: Social Indicators Network News
          • ,
          • 45
          • (February)
          • ,
          • 1-4.
          • KC Land.
          • (1995).
          • Review of “Statistical Indicators for the Economic & Social Sciences,” by Robert V. Horn.
          • Social Indicators Research
          • ,
          • 34
          • ,
          • 414-417.
          • Springer Verlag (Germany).
          • KC Land.
          • (1993).
          • Review of “Demographic Analysis: A Stochastic Approach,” by Krishnan Namboodiri.
          • Population Studies: A Journal of Demography
          • ,
          • 47
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 178-179.
          • KC Land.
          • (1993).
          • S-Curves Everywhere,' review essay for “Predictions: Society's Telltale Signature Reveals the Past and Forecasts the Future,” by Theodore Modis.
          • Science
          • ,
          • 259
          • (23 Februrary)
          • ,
          • 1349-1350.
          • K LAND.
          • (1993).
          • HUMAN-DEVELOPMENT REPORT 1993 - PEOPLES PARTICIPATION - UN-DEV-PROGRAM.
          • POPULATION RESEARCH AND POLICY REVIEW
          • ,
          • 12
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 315-317.
          • [web]
          • KC Land.
          • (1992).
          • Review of “Crime and Justice: A Review of Research,” edited by Michael Tonry and Norval Morris.
          • Criminal Justice Review
          • ,
          • 17
          • (Spring)
          • ,
          • 129-131.
          • KC Land.
          • (1991).
          • Review of “The Future of Meta-Analysis,” edited by Kenneth W. Wachter and Miron L. Straf.
          • Contemporary Sociology: A Journal of Reviews
          • ,
          • 20
          • (July)
          • ,
          • 648-650.
          • KC Land.
          • (1990).
          • Review of Structural Equation Modeling with LISREL: Essentials and Advances,” by Leslie A. Hayduk.
          • manual
          • ,
          • 69
          • ,
          • 338-339.
          • CJ Calhoun and KC Land.
          • (1989).
          • Editors' Response to Exchanges on the “Handbook” Symposium.
          • Contemporary Sociology: A Journal of Reviews
          • ,
          • 18
          • (November)
          • ,
          • 856-857.
          • KC Land.
          • (1989).
          • Review of “Migration and Politics: The Impact of Population Mobility on American Voting Behavior,” by Thad A. Brown.
          • Contemporary Sociology: A Journal of Reviews
          • ,
          • 18
          • (September)
          • ,
          • 729-731.
          • CJ Calhoun and KC Land.
          • (1989).
          • Editors' Introduction to Review Symposium of “Handbook of Sociology,” edited by Neil J. Smelser.
          • Contemporary Sociology: A Journal of Reviews
          • ,
          • 18
          • (July)
          • ,
          • 475-477.
          • CJ Calhoun and KC Land.
          • (1989).
          • Editors' Introduction to Review Symposium of “Handbook of Sociology,” edited by Neil J. Smelser.
          • Contemporary Sociology: A Journal of Reviews
          • ,
          • 18
          • (July)
          • ,
          • 475-477.
          • KC Land.
          • (1989).
          • Review of “Predicting Recidivism Using Survival Models,” by Peter Schmidt and Ann Dryden Witte.
          • Contemporary Sociology: A Journal of Reviews
          • ,
          • 18
          • (March)
          • ,
          • 245-246.
          • KC Land.
          • (1988).
          • Review of “Life Table Techniques and Their Applications,” by Krishnan Namboodiri and C. M. Suchindran.
          • American Journal of Sociology
          • ,
          • 93
          • (March)
          • ,
          • 1296-1299.
          • KC Land.
          • (1987).
          • Review of “Communities and Crime,” edited by Albert J. Reiss, Jr., and Michael Tonry.
          • Policy Sciences
          • ,
          • 20
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 176-178.
          • Springer Verlag (Germany).
          • KC Land.
          • (1987).
          • Review of “Basic Dilemmas in the Social Sciences,” by Hubert M. Blalock, Jr..
          • Contemporary Sociology: A Journal of Reviews
          • ,
          • 16
          • (May)
          • ,
          • 446-447.
          • KC Land.
          • (1987).
          • Review of “Behavioral and Social Science: Fifty Years of Discovery,” edited by Neil J. Smelser and Dean R. Gerstein.
          • Journal of the American Statistical Association
          • ,
          • 82
          • (March)
          • ,
          • 352-353.
          • Taylor & Francis: SSH Journals.
          • KC Land.
          • (1986).
          • Review of “Policy Indicators: Links Between Social Science and Public Debate,” by Duncan MacRae, Jr..
          • Social forces; a scientific medium of social study and interpretation
          • ,
          • 65
          • (September)
          • ,
          • 260-262.
          • Oxford University Press (OUP): Policy E - Oxford Open Option D.
          • KC Land.
          • (1986).
          • Review of “Social System Accounts: Linking Social and Economic Indicators through Tangible and Behavior Settings,” by Karl A. Fox.
          • Contemporary Sociology: A Journal of Reviews
          • ,
          • 15
          • ,
          • 664-665.
          • KC Land.
          • (1985).
          • Review of “Guide to Social Assessment: A Framework for Assessing Social Change,” by Kristi Branch, Douglas A. Hooper, James Thompson, and James Creighton.
          • Contemporary Sociology: A Journal of Reviews
          • ,
          • 14
          • (July)
          • ,
          • 454-455.
          • KC Land.
          • (1984).
          • Review of “Sociological Methodology, 1983-84” edited by Samuel Leinhardt.
          • Contemporary Sociology: A Journal of Reviews,
          • ,
          • 13
          • (July)
          • ,
          • 484-485.
          • KC Land.
          • (1983).
          • Review of “Conceptualization and Measurement in the Social Sciences,” by Hubert M. Blalock, Jr..
          • Sociology and social research
          • ,
          • 67
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 224-225.
          • KC Land.
          • (1983).
          • Review of “Indicator System for Political, Economic, and Social Analysis,” edited by Charles Lewis Taylor.
          • American Journal of Sociology
          • ,
          • 88
          • (March)
          • ,
          • 1078-1080.
          • University of Chicago Press.
          • KC Land.
          • (1983).
          • Feature article, “Ex Ante and Ex Post Assessment of the Social Consequences of Public Projects and Policies,” reviewing “Understanding Social Impacts: Assessing the Effects of Public Projects,” by Kurt Finsterbausch, and “The Analysis of Policy Impact,” edited by John G. Grumm and Stephen L. Wasby.
          • Contemporary Sociology: A Journal of Reviews
          • ,
          • 11
          • (September)
          • ,
          • 512-514.
          • KC Land.
          • (1980).
          • Review of “Toward a Metric of Science: The Advent of Science Indicators,” edited by Yehuda Elkana, Joshua Lederberg, Robert K. Merton, Arnold Thackray, and Harriet Zuckerman.
          • manual
          • ,
          • 64
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 282-283.
          • KC Land.
          • (1980).
          • Review of “Sociological Methodology, 1979,” edited by Karl F. Schuessler.
          • Contemporary Sociology: A Journal of Reviews
          • ,
          • 9
          • (March)
          • ,
          • 227-278.
          • KC Land.
          • (1978).
          • Symposium review of “Social Indicators of Well-Being: Americans' Perceptions of Life Quality,” by Frank M. Andrews and Stephen B. Whithey.
          • Contemporary Sociology: A Journal of Reviews
          • ,
          • 9
          • (July)
          • ,
          • 389-391.
          • KC Land.
          • (1978).
          • Review of “The Analysis of Survey Data, Volume 1: Exploring Data Structures, and Volume 2: Model Fitting,” edited by Colm A. O'Muircheartaigh and Clive Payne.
          • Contemporary Sociology: A Journal of Reviews
          • ,
          • 7
          • (May)
          • ,
          • 329-330.
          • KC Land.
          • (1977).
          • Review of “Modeling Social Processes,” by Patrick Doreian and Normal P. Humon.
          • Sociology and Social Research
          • ,
          • 62
          • (1)
          • ,
          • 140-142.
          • KC Land.
          • (1977).
          • Review of “The Quality of American Life,” by Angus Campbell, Philip E. Converse, and Willard L. Rogers.
          • American scientist
          • ,
          • 65
          • (May-June)
          • ,
          • 374-374.
          • American Scientist.
          • KC Land.
          • (1977).
          • Review of “Economic Means for Human Needs: Social Indicators of Well-Being and Discontent,” edited by Burkhard Strumpel.
          • Monthly Labor Review,
          • ,
          • 100
          • (2)
          • ,
          • 91-92.
          • KC Land.
          • (1976).
          • Review of “The Use of Models in the Social Sciences,” edited by Lyndhurst Collins.
          • Contemporary Sociology: A Journal of Reviews
          • ,
          • 6
          • (November)
          • ,
          • 778-780.
          • KC Land.
          • (1976).
          • Review of “Measurement in the Social Sciences: Theories and Strategies,” edited by Hubert M. Blalock, Jr..
          • American Journal of Sociology
          • ,
          • 81
          • (March)
          • ,
          • 1258-1262.
          • University of Chicago Press.
          • KC Land.
          • (1975).
          • Review of “Inferences from Sociological Survey Data,” by J.K. Lindsay.
          • manual
          • ,
          • 70
          • (March)
          • ,
          • 256-257.
          Publication Description

          Journal of the American Statistical Association

          • KC Land.
          • (1972).
          • Review of “Causal Models in the Social Sciences,” edited by Hubert M. Blalock, Jr..
          • Sociological Methods and Research
          • ,
          • 1
          • (August)
          • ,
          • 139-141.
          • KC Land.
          • (1972).
          • Review essay on “Model Building in Sociology,” by Peter Abell and “Mathematics and the Study of Social Relations,” by Patrick Doreian.
          • Sociological Methods and Research
          • ,
          • 1
          • (August)
          • ,
          • 137-138.
          • KC Land.
          • (1968).
          • Review of “Migration and Metropolitan Growth: Two Analytical Models,” by Ira S. Lowry.
          • International Migration Review
          • ,
          • 2
          • (Summer)
          • ,
          • 69-70.
      • Book Chapters

          • VL Lamb and KC Land.
          • (2015).
          • Worldwide view of child wellbeing.
          • Global Handbook of Quality of Life: Exploration of Well-Being of Nations and Continents
          • (pp. 445-468).
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015. “How are the kids doing” is a wellbeing question. Many adults might be able to answer the question for their own children or those in their immediate surroundings, and many children may provide information about their own wellbeing or those of other children. However, applied to large populations of children at the national and cross-nationallevels, questions of this genre are more challenging and have stimulated the rapid development of studies of child wellbeing in recent decades. This chapter reviews the objective and subjective approaches to measuring child wellbeing, describes the roots of this field in the social indicators movement of the 1960s and 1970s, outlines the conceptual and methodological development of child wellbeing research, and summarizes empirical findings from several major national and cross-nationalstudies of child wellbeing. The chapter concludes with future directions and needed conceptual and data developments to advance the global monitoring of child wellbeing.

          • KC Land.
          • (2015).
          • Social Indicators.
          • In G Ritzer (Eds.),
          • Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology
          • .
          • Blackwell Publishing Company.
          • KC Land, VL Lamb and Q Fu.
          • (2015).
          • Child Well-Being and Child Suffering.
          • In RE Anderson (Eds.),
          • World Suffering and Quality of Life
          • (pp. 173-186).
          • Springer.
          • KC Land.
          • (2015).
          • Forecasting.
          • In JD Wright (Eds.),
          • International Encyclopedia of Behavioral and Social Sciences
          • .
          • Elsevier.
          • KC Land and G Hernes.
          • (2015).
          • Social Change: Models.
          • In JD Wright (Eds.),
          • International Encyclopedia of Behavioral and Social Sciences
          • (pp. 192-198).
          • Elsevier.
          • KC Land.
          • (2015).
          • The Human Development Index.
          • In W Glatzer (Eds.),
          • Global Handbook of Well-Being and Quality of Life
          • (pp. 133-158).
          • Springer.
          • P Wilcox and KC Land.
          • (2015).
          • Social Disorganization and Multilevel Criminal Opportunity.
          • In FT Cullen and P Wilcox and RJ Sampson and B Dooley (Eds.),
          • Challenging Criminological Theory: The Legacy of Ruth Kornhauser-Advances in Criminological Theory
          • (pp. 237-257).
          • Transactions Publishers.
          • KC Land.
          • (2015).
          • Quality-of-Life/Social Indicators Research.
          • In K Korgen (Eds.),
          • Cambridge Handbook of Sociology
          • .
          • Cambridge University Press.
          • KC Land.
          • (2015).
          • Quality-of-Life/Social Indicators Research.
          • In K Korgen (Eds.),
          • Cambridge Handbook of Sociology
          • .
          • Cambridge University Press.
          • A Michalos, R Phillips and KC Land.
          • (2015).
          • Well-Being in Canada and the United States.
          • In RJ Estes and MJ Sirgy (Eds.),
          • The History of Well-Being from Ancient to Modern Times
          • .
          • Springer.
          • KC Land, VL Lamb and Q Fu.
          • (2015).
          • Measuring Trends in Child Well-Being and Child Suffering in the United States, 1975-2013.
          • In M Filomena (Eds.),
          • A Life Devoted to Quality of Life: Festschrift in Honor of Alex C. Michalos
          • .
          • Springer.
          • KC Land.
          • (2014).
          • Weighting Schemes.
          • In AC Michalos (Eds.),
          • Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research
          • (pp. 7028-7029).
          • Springer.
          • KC Land.
          • (2014).
          • Subjective Weighting.
          • In AC Michalos (Eds.),
          • Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research
          • (pp. 6436-6437).
          • Springer.
          • KC Land.
          • (2014).
          • SINET.
          • In AC Michalos (Eds.),
          • Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research
          • (pp. 5974-5975).
          • Springer.
          • KC Land.
          • (2014).
          • History of Social Indicators and Its Evolution.
          • In AC Michalos (Eds.),
          • Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research
          • (pp. 2875-2882).
          • Springer.
          • KC Land.
          • (2014).
          • Composite Index Construction.
          • In AC Michalos (Eds.),
          • Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research
          • (pp. 1152-1156).
          • Springer.
          • KC Land and VL Lamb.
          • (2014).
          • Child and Youth Well-Being Index (CWI).
          • In AC Michalos (Eds.),
          • Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research
          • (pp. 672-676).
          • Springer.
          • KC Land and Y Yang.
          • (2014).
          • Cohort Analysis.
          • In J Manza (Eds.),
          • Oxford Bibliographies in Sociology
          • .
          • Oxford University Press.
          • [web]
          • JD Keene.
          • (2013).
          • Preface.
          • (pp. v-vi).
          • [web]
          • VL Lamb and KC Land.
          • (2013).
          • Methodologies Used in the Construction of Composite Child Well-Being Indices.
          • In ABA Casas and I Frones and J Korban (Eds.),
          • Handbook of Child Well-Being
          • (pp. 2739-2755).
          • Springer.
          • P Wilcox, BM Gialopsos and KC Land.
          • (2013).
          • Multilevel Criminal Opportunity.
          • In FT Cullen and P Wilcox (Eds.),
          • The Oxford Handbook of Criminological Theory
          • .
          • Oxford University Press.
          • KC Land, VL Lamb and SK Mustillo.
          • (2012).
          • Child and youth well-being in the United States, 1975–1998: Some findings from a new index.
          • Key Indicators of Child and Youth Well-Being: Completing the Picture
          • (pp. 392-444).
          • [web]
          • Kenneth C. Land.
          • (2012).
          • Introduction, The Well-Being of America's Children: Developing and Improving the Child and Youth Well-Being Index.
          • In K. C. Land (Eds.),
          • The Well-Being of America’s Children: Developing and Improving the Child and Youth Well-Being Index
          • (pp. 1-12).
          • Springer.
          • KC Land, AC Michalos and MJ Sirgy.
          • (2012).
          • Prologue: The Development and Evolution of Research on Social Indicators and Quality of Life.
          • In KC Land and AC Michalos and MJ Sirgy (Eds.),
          • Handbook of Social Indicators and Quality-of-Life Research.
          • (pp. 1-22).
          • New York: Springer.
          • MR Hagerty and KC Land.
          • (2012).
          • Issues in Composite Index Construction: The Measurement of Overall Quality of Life.
          • In KC Land and AC Michalos and MJ Sirgy (Eds.),
          • Handbook of Social Indicators and Quality-of-Life Research
          • (pp. 181-200).
          • New York: Spinger.
          • KC Land, VL Lamb and H Zheng.
          • (2012).
          • Intergenerational and Cross-National Comparisons of Child and Youth Well-Being.
          • In KC Land (Eds.),
          • The Well-Being of America’s Children: Developing and Improving the Child and Youth Well-Being Index
          • .
          • Springer.
          • Q Fu, VL Lamb and KC Land.
          • (2012).
          • Scalability of the CWI: Substate Regional Indicators and Composite Indices.
          • In KC Land (Eds.),
          • The Well-Being of America’s Children: Developing and Improving the Child and Youth Well-Being Index
          • (pp. 189-224).
          • Springer.
          • MR Hagerty and KC Land.
          • (2012).
          • Issues in Composite Index Construction.
          • In KC Land (Eds.),
          • The Well-Being of America’s Children: Developing and Improving the Child and Youth Well-Being Index
          • (pp. 143-160).
          • Springer.
          • KC Land, VL Lamb, S Meadows, H Zheng and Q Fu.
          • (2012).
          • The CWI and Its Components: Empirical Studies and Findings.
          • In KC Land (Eds.),
          • The Well-Being of America’s Children: Developing and Improving the Child and Youth Well-Being Index
          • (pp. 29-77).
          • Springer.
          • KC Land, VL Lamb and S Meadows.
          • (2012).
          • Conceptual and Methodological Foundations of the Child and Youth Well-Being Index.
          • In KC Land (Eds.),
          • The Well-Being of America’s Children: Developing and Improving the Child and Youth Well-Being Index
          • (pp. 13-28).
          • Springer.
          • KC Land.
          • (2012).
          • Conclusions and Future Directions.
          • In KC Land (Eds.),
          • The Well-Being of America’s Children: Developing and Improving the Child and Youth Well-Being Index
          • (pp. 261-263).
          • Springer.
          • A Paya and JL Esposito.
          • (2010).
          • Introduction.
          • (pp. 1-15).
          • [web]
          • KC Land and H Zheng.
          • (2010).
          • Sample Size, Optimum Allocation, and Statistical Power Analysis.
          • In PV Marsden and JD Wright (Eds.),
          • Handbook of Survey Research, Second Edition
          • (pp. 199-220).
          • Emerald Group Publishing Ltd..
          • KC Land and VL Lamb.
          • (2010).
          • Demography of Aging.
          • In HK Heggenhougen and SR Quah (Eds.),
          • Epidemiology and Demography in Public Health
          • (pp. 409-414).
          • Elsevier.
          • Balleisen, EJ; Moss, DA.
          • (2009).
          • Introduction.
          • Government and Markets: Toward a New Theory of Regulation
          • (pp. 1-10).
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          © Cambridge University Press and The Tobin Projec 2010. After more than a generation of deregulation and a presidential declaration that the “era of big government is over, ” the political pendulum has apparently begun to swing back toward regulation. Calls for effective government action, long subdued, have grown louder and more numerous. The provocations are not hard to find: the financial crisis first and foremost, but also accounting scandals at some of the nation's largest corporations (Enron, WorldCom, etc.); lead-tainted toys from China; E. coli outbreaks in the domestic food supply; collapsing levees and bridges; rising global temperatures and the threat of fundamental climate change. One might expect that American lawmakers, confronted by these many challenges, could turn to experts in the academy for guidance. Yet to a surprisingly large extent, the academic discussion has remained stuck in a deregulatory mindset, more focused on government failure than on the ingredients of government effectiveness or success. As a result, there is a real danger that the new round of regulation will be rooted not in new research and new thinking, but rather in old ideas that are conveniently dusted off and reused in the absence of anything better. This book represents an attempt by concerned academics to begin moving beyond old ideas about regulation – very old ones that informed earlier rounds of regulatory activity as well as more recent ones that drove a wave of deregulation beginning in the late 1970s.

          • KC Land, VL Lamb, SO Meadows and A Taylor.
          • (2009).
          • Measuring Trends in Child Well-Being: An Evidence-Based Approach.
          • In A Ben-Arieh and I Frones (Eds.),
          • Indicators of Children’s Well-Being
          • (pp. 297-324).
          • Springer.
          • KC Land and VL Lamb.
          • (2008).
          • Demography of aging.
          • In H. Krisitan Heggenhougen (Eds.),
          • International Encyclopedia of Public Health
          • (pp. 89-95).
          • Elsevier.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          Demography of aging is a subfield of demography that focuses on the older members of a population as well as the processes and consequences of population aging. Research in the demography of aging examines a number of topics, including the state and status of the older population, changes in the numbers, proportionate size, and composition of the older population, demographic forces of fertility, mortality, and migration that bring about these changes, and the effects of these changes on the social, economic, health, and personal well-being of the elderly. Major factors associated with population aging are reviewed. © 2008 Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

          • KC Land, VL Lamb and SK Mustillo.
          • (2008).
          • Child and Youth Well-Being in the United States, 1975-1998: Some Findings from a New Index.
          • In BV Brown (Eds.),
          • Key Indicators of Child and Youth Well-Being: Completing the Picture
          • (pp. 393-443).
          • Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
          • JP Robinson and KC Land.
          • (2008).
          • Social Indicators and the Quality of Life.
          • In W Donsbach and MW Traugott (Eds.),
          • Handbook of Public Opinion Research
          • (pp. 545-555).
          • Sage.
          • V Canudas-Romo, KC Land, Y Yang and Z Yi.
          • (2008).
          • Mathematical Demography.
          • Demography volume of the Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) (www.eolss.net), coordinated by the UNESCO-EOLSS Committe
          • .
          • EOLSS Publishers Co.Ltd..
          • MR Hagerty and KC Land.
          • (2007).
          • Constructing summary indices of quality of life - A model for the effect of heterogeneous importance weights.
          • (pp. 455-496).
          • [web]
          • KC Land.
          • (2007).
          • Social Indicators.
          • In G Ritzer (Eds.),
          • Encyclopedia of Sociology
          • (pp. 4420-4426).
          • Blackwell Publishing Company.
          • KC Land and TJ Fararo.
          • (2007).
          • Mathematical Sociology.
          • In CD Bryant and DL Peck (Eds.),
          • Handbook of 21st Century Sociology
          • (pp. 71-80).
          • Sage Publications.
          • KC Land and AL Ferriss.
          • (2007).
          • The Sociology of Social Indicators.
          • In CD Bryant and DL Peck (Eds.),
          • Handbook of 21st Century Sociology
          • (pp. 518-526).
          • Sage Publications.
          • KG Manton, KC Land and E Stallard.
          • (2007).
          • Human aging and mortality.
          • In Adrian Bejan (Eds.),
          • Constructal Theory of Social Dynamics
          • (pp. 183-196).
          • Springer.
          • [web]
          • KG Manton, KC Land and E Stallard.
          • (2007).
          • Human Aging and Mortality.
          • In A Bejan and GW Merkx (Eds.),
          • Constructal Theory of Social Dynamics
          • (pp. 183-196).
          • Springer.
          • KC Land and Y Yang.
          • (2006).
          • Morbidity, disability, and mortality.
          • In Robert Binstock and Linda K. George (Eds.),
          • Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences
          • (pp. 41-58).
          • Academic Press/Elsevier.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          This chapter reviews some major directions and findings from recent research on morbidity, disability, and mortality among adults and the elderly. One of the findings is that during the last two decades of the 20th century, the United States continued to exhibit shifts in the age distribution of both overall deaths and deaths from major degenerative diseases toward older ages. This is consistent with predictions from the fourth stage of the epidemiologic transition-the age of delayed degenerative diseases. Research on the dynamics of morbidity and mortality in medical demography shows that the age dependence of mortality risk can be substantially reduced or explained by taking into account several measures of physiological functioning. If the therapies have the effect of helping a larger fraction of elderly cohorts maintain their physiological parameters near the optimal values, this could reduce the age dependence of mortality and further raise life expectancy, which has implications for forecasts of the size and health status of the elderly population that are based on the medical demography model. Research in social demography, epidemiology, and medical sociology has greatly improved knowledge of how social, economic, and lifestyle/behavioral factors affect differentials in morbidity, disability, and mortality by sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. © 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

          • Z Yi, G Danan and KC Land.
          • (2006).
          • A Method for Correcting the Underestimation of Disabled Life Expectancy, with an Empirical Application to Oldest-Old in China.
          • In Z Yi and EM Crimmins and Y Carriere and J-M Robine (Eds.),
          • Longer Life and Healthy Aging
          • (pp. 49-70).
          • Springer.
          • KC Land and Y Yang.
          • (2006).
          • Morbidity, Disability, and Mortality.
          • In R Binstock and LK George (Eds.),
          • Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences
          • (pp. 41-58).
          • Academic Press/Elsevier.
          • P Anand.
          • (2005).
          • Introduction.
          • In Land, KC; Spilerman, S (Eds.),
          • Social Indicator Models
          • (pp. 1-8).
          • Russell Sage Foundation.
          • [web]
          • ME Ezell and KC Land.
          • (2005).
          • Ordinary Least Squares.
          • In K Kempf-Leonard (Eds.),
          • Encyclopedia of Social Measurement
          • (pp. 943-950).
          • Academic Press.
          • Z Yi, G Danan and KC Land.
          • (2005).
          • A Method for Correcting the Underestimation of Disabled Life Expectancy, with an Empirical Application to Oldest-Old in China.
          • In Z Yi and E Crimmins and Y Carrière (Eds.),
          • Longer Life and Healthy Aging
          • .
          • Springer.
          • VL Lamb, KC Land, SO Meadows and F Traylor.
          • (2005).
          • Trends in African-American Child Well-Being: 1985-2001.
          • In VC McLoyd and NE Hill and KA Dodge (Eds.),
          • African American Family Life: Ecological and Cultural Diversity
          • (pp. 45-77).
          • Guilford Publications.
          • KC Land, Y Yang and Z Yi.
          • (2005).
          • Mathematical Demography.
          • In DLP Jr and M Micklin (Eds.),
          • Handbook of Population
          • (pp. 659-717).
          • Springer.
          • KC Land.
          • (2004).
          • An Evidence-Based Approach to the Construction of Summary Quality-of-Life Indices.
          • In W Glatzer and SV Below and M Stoffregen (Eds.),
          • Challenges for Quality of Life in the Contemporary World
          • (pp. 107-124).
          • Springer.
          • KC Land and AL Ferriss.
          • (2002).
          • Conceptual Models for the Development and Use of Social Indicators..
          • In W Glatzer and R Habich and KU Mayer (Eds.),
          • Sozialer Wandel und gesellschaftliche Dauerbeobachtung
          • (pp. 337-352).
          • Festschrift for Wolfgang Zapf. Opladen: Leske+Budrich.
          • KC Land and AVD Unger.
          • (2002).
          • Criminal Careers..
          • In J Dressler (Eds.),
          • Encyclopedia of Crime and Justice
          • (pp. 340-347).
          • New York: Macmillan Reference.
          • KC Land.
          • (2001).
          • Social Indicators for Assessing the Impact of the Independent, Not-for-Profit Sector on Society.
          • In P Flynn and VA Hodgkinson (Eds.),
          • Measuring the Impact of the Private Nonprofit Sector
          • (pp. 59-80).
          • Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
          • KC Land and PL McCall.
          • (2001).
          • The Indeterminancy of Forecasts of Crime Rates and Juvenile Offenses.
          • In J McCord and CS Widom and NA Crowell (Eds.),
          • Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice
          • (pp. 319-348).
          • National Academy Press..
          • KC Land.
          • (2001).
          • Social indicators for assessing the impact of the independent, not-for-profit sector of society.
          • (pp. 59-76).
          • [web]
          • KC Land.
          • (2000).
          • Social Indicators.
          • In EF Borgatta and RV Montgomery (Eds.),
          • Encyclopedia of Sociology
          • (pp. 2682-2690).
          • Macmillian Publishing Company.
          • KF Parker, PL McCall and KC Land.
          • (1998).
          • The Effects of Levels of Analysis on Inferences in Homicide Studies.
          • In M Dwayne and MA Zahn (Eds.),
          • Homicide: A Sourcebook of Social Research
          • (pp. 107-124).
          • Sage Publications.
          • KC Land, D Cantor and ST Russell.
          • (1995).
          • Unemployment and Crime Rate Fluctuations in the Post-World War II United States: Statistical Time Series Properties and Alternative Models.
          • In J Hagan and RD Peterson (Eds.),
          • Crime and Inequality
          • (pp. 55-79).
          • Stanford University Press.
          • DC Nath, KC Land and J Dutta.
          • (1994).
          • A Birth Model for Non-Stable Population with an Application to Indian Data.
          • In KB Pathek and A Pandey (Eds.),
          • Biosocial Aspects of Human Fertility
          • (pp. 139-146).
          • B. R. Publishing Corp.
          • DC Nath, KC Land and KK Singh.
          • (1994).
          • A Study of the Impact of Birth Interval and Breast-Feeding on Child Mortality in Uttar Pradesh Using Hazard Model.
          • In KB Pathak and A Pandey (Eds.),
          • Biosocial Aspects of Human Fertility
          • (pp. 79-92).
          • B. R. Publishing Corp.
          • KC Land.
          • (1992).
          • Social Indicators.
          • In ML Borgatta (Eds.),
          • Encyclopedia of Sociology
          • (pp. 1844-1850).
          • Macmillan Publishing Company.
          • KC Land, PL McCall and JR Williams.
          • (1992).
          • Intensive Supervision of Status Offenders: Evidence on Continuity of Treatment Effects for Juveniles and a 'Hawthorne Effect' for Counselors.
          • In J McCord and RE Tremblay (Eds.),
          • Preventing Antisocial Behavior: Interventions from Birth through Adolescence
          • (pp. 330-349).
          • Guilford Press.
          • KC Land.
          • (1992).
          • Evaluation of the North Carolina Court Counselors' Intensive Protective Supervision Project.
          • (pp. 68-72).
          • National Institute of Justice.
          • KC Land.
          • (1989).
          • Measurement Issues in Social Statistics.
          • (pp. 201-213).
          • American Statistical Association.
          • R Cole, H Edelsbrunner, R Fagin, G Frederickson, N Lynch, A Odlyzko, J Rcif, M Tompa, J Ullunan, A Yao and J Simon.
          • (1988).
          • Forward.
          • (pp. iii).
          • KC Land and SH Schneider.
          • (1987).
          • Forecasting in the Social and Natural Sciences: Some Isomorphisms.
          • In KC Land and SH Schneider (Eds.),
          • Forecasting in the Social and Natural Sciences
          • (pp. 7-31).
          • D. Reidel Publishing Company.
          • KC Land and SH Schneider.
          • (1987).
          • Forward.
          • In KC Land and SH Schneider (Eds.),
          • Forecasting in the Social and Natural Sciences
          • (pp. 1-3).
          • D. Reidel Publishing Company.
          • LE Cohen and KC Land.
          • (1987).
          • Sociological Positivism and the Explanation of Criminality.
          • In MR Gottfredson and T Hirschi (Eds.),
          • Positive Criminology
          • (pp. 43-55).
          • Sage.
          • KC Land.
          • (1985).
          • Methods for National Population Forecasts: A Critical Review.
          • (pp. 251-270).
          • Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce.
          • KC Land.
          • (1984).
          • Markovian Transition Rates Models of Macro Social Change.
          • In A Diekmann and P Mitter (Eds.),
          • Stochastic Modelling of Social Processes
          • (pp. 215-243).
          • Academic Press.
          • RM Stolzenberg and KC Land.
          • (1983).
          • Causal Modeling and Survey Research.
          • In PH Rossi and J Wright (Eds.),
          • Handbook of Survey Research
          • (pp. 613-675).
          • Academic Press.
          • KC Land and R Schoen.
          • (1982).
          • Statistical Methods for Markov- Generated Increment-Decrement Life Tables with Polynomial Gross Flow Functions.
          • In KC Land and A Rogers (Eds.),
          • Multidimensional Mathematical Demography
          • (pp. 265-346).
          • Academic Press.
          • KC Land and R Schoen.
          • (1982).
          • Statistical Methods for Markov- Generated Increment-Decrement Life Tables with Polynomial Gross Flow Functions.
          • In KC Land and A Rogers (Eds.),
          • Multidimensional Mathematical Demography
          • (pp. 265-346).
          • Academic Press.
          • KC Land and A Rogers.
          • (1982).
          • Multidimensional Mathematical Demography: An Overview.
          • In KC Land and A Rogers (Eds.),
          • Multidimensional Mathematical Demography
          • (pp. 1-41).
          • New York: Academic Press.
          • KC Land and FT Juster.
          • (1981).
          • Social Accounting Systems and Social Indicators: An Overview..
          • In FT Juster and KC Land (Eds.),
          • Social Accounting Systems: Essays on the State of the Art
          • (pp. 1-21).
          • New York: Academic Press.
          • KC Land and MM McMillen.
          • (1981).
          • Demographic Accounts and the Study of Social Change, with Applications to the Post-World War II United States..
          • In FT Juster and KC Land (Eds.),
          • Social Accounting Systems: Essays on the State of the Art
          • (pp. 241-306).
          • New York: Academic Press.
          • KC Land.
          • (1980).
          • Notes on Social Indicators and Public Policy: Future Perpsectives.
          • (pp. 1401-1418).
          • Ecole National d'Administration Publique.
          • MM McMillen and KC Land.
          • (1980).
          • Methodological Considerations in the Demographic Approach to Social Accounting.
          • (pp. 200-205).
          • American Statistical Association.
          • KC Land.
          • (1980).
          • Forward..
          • In R McCleary and J Richard A Hay (Eds.),
          • Applied Time Series Analysis for the Social Sciences
          • (pp. 13-14).
          • Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
          • M Felson and KC Land.
          • (1980).
          • Linking Education to the Larger Society with Social Indicator Models..
          • In CE Bidwell and DM Windham (Eds.),
          • The Analysis of Educational Productivity. Volume II: Issues in Macroanalysis
          • (pp. 65-92).
          • Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.
          • KC Land.
          • (1975).
          • Two Preliminary Models for the Analysis of Changes in a Social Indicator of Job Satisfaction.
          • (pp. 1-7).
          • American Statistical Association.
          • KC Land.
          • (1975).
          • Social Indicator Models: An Overview..
          • In KC Land and S Spilerman (Eds.),
          • Social Indicator Models
          • (pp. 5-35).
          • New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
          • KC Land.
          • (1975).
          • Comparative Statics in Sociology: Including a Mathematical 3Theory of Differentiation in Organizations..
          • In JUSA H M Blalock and AAUSS R and RBF R M Borodkin U S S R and VC Italy (Eds.),
          • Quantitative Sociology: International Perspectives in Mathematical and Statistical Modelling
          • (pp. 475-510).
          • New York: Seminar Press.
          • KC Land.
          • (1973).
          • Identification, Parameter Estimation, and Hypothesis Testing in Recursive Sociological Models..
          • In AS Goldberger and OD Duncan (Eds.),
          • Structural Equation Models in the Social Sciences
          • (pp. 19-49).
          • New York: Seminar Press.
          • KC Land.
          • (1971).
          • Some Problems of Statistical Inference in Dynamic Sociological Models.
          • (pp. 21-25).
          • American Statistical Association.
      • Edited Books

          • (2012).
          • The Well-Being of America’s Children: Developing and Improving the Child and Youth Well-Being Index.
          • In Kenneth C. Land (Eds.),
          • Springer.
          • Land, KC; Michalos, AC; Sirgy, MJ.
          • (2012).
          • Handbook of Social Indicators and Quality-of-Life Research.
          • New York: Springer.
      • Papers Accepted

          • PL McCall, KC Land, CB Dollar and KF Parker.
          • (2013).
          • The Age Structure-Crime Rate Relationship: Solving a Long-Standing Puzzle.
          • Journal of Quantitative Criminology
          • .
          • WPO Hare, M Mather, G Dupuis, KC Land, VL Lamb and Q Fu.
          • (2013).
          • Analyzing Differences in Child Well-Being Among U.S. States.
          • Child Indicators Research
          • ,
          • 6
          • (2)
          • ,
          • forthcoming-forthcoming.
          • [web]
          • Z Yi, KC Land, Z Wang and D Gu.
          • (2013).
          • Population and Household Projections at Sub-National Levels: An Extended Cohort-Component Approach.
          • Demography
          • ,
          • 49
          • ,
          • forthcoming-forthcoming.
      • Reprints

          • PW Rountree and KC Land.
          • (2007).
          • Burglary Victimization, Preceptions of Crime Risk, and Routine Activities: A Multilevel Analysis Across Seattle Neighborhoods and Census Tracts.
          • manual
          • RI Mawby (Eds.),
          • Burglary
          • ,
          • 199-232.
          • Ashgate Publishing Company.
      • Other

          • H Zheng, Y Yang and KC Land.
          • (2011).
          • Variance Function Regression in Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort Models: Applications to the Study of Self-Reported Health.
          • manual
          • .
      • Nonrefereed

          • KC Land, VL Lamb and Q Fu.
          • (2015).
          • Child Well-Being and Child Suffering: Cross-National Relationships to Human Development.
          • SINET: Social Indicators Network News
          • ,
          • 1-6.
          • KC Land.
          • (2014).
          • Duke Child and Youth Well-Being Index (CWI) Report 2014.
          • manual
          • .
          • KC Land.
          • (2013).
          • 2013 National Child and Youth Well-Being Index (CWI).
          • manual
          • .
          • WP O'Hare, M Mather, G Dupuis, KC Land, VL Lamb and Q Gu.
          • (2012).
          • Differences in Child Well-Being Among U.S. States.
          • SINET: Social Indicators Network News
          • ,
          • 6-10.
          • KC Land, VL Lamb and Q Fu.
          • (2012).
          • Violent Bullying Victimization in Middle and High School Contexts in the United States: A Social Report.
          • SINET: Social Indicators Network News
          • ,
          • 1-11.
          • KC Land.
          • (2012).
          • 2012 National Child and Youth Well-Being Index (CWI).
          • manual
          • New York: Foundation for Child Development.
          • KC Land.
          • (2011).
          • The 2011 Foundation for Child Development Child and Youth Well-Being Index (CWI) Report,Including An Update of the CWI for the Years 1975-2009, and Projections of the CWI for 2010..
          • manual
          • New York: Foundation for Child Development.
          • KC Land.
          • (March 2010).
          • Anticipating the Impacts of Significant Societal Events on Well-Being-A Case Study: The Impacts of the Great Recession on Child and Youth Well-Being in the United States.
          • SINET: Social Indicators Network News
          • .
          • KC Land.
          • (2010).
          • The 2010 Foundation for Child Development Child and Youth Well-Being Index (CWI) Report, Including An Update of the CWI for the Years 1975-2008, Projections of the CWI for 2009, and A Special Focus Report on the Anticipated Breadth and Depth of the Great Recession on Child Well-Being..
          • manual
          • New York: Foundation for Child Development.
          • Q Fu, VL Lamb and KC Land.
          • (2009).
          • California Child and Youth Well-Being Index, 1995-2007: Trends, Changes and Projections to 2012.
          • manual
          • Palo Alto, CA: Lucile Packard Foundation for Children’s Health.
          • KC Land.
          • (2009).
          • The 2009 Foundation for Child Development Child and Youth Well-Being Index (CWI) Report, Including An Update of the CWI for the Years 1975-2007, Projections of the CWI for 2008, and A Special Focus Report on Anticipating the Impacts of the 2008-2010 Recession.
          • manual
          • New York: Foundation for Child Development.
          • J Lee, VL Lamb and KC Land.
          • (2008).
          • Composite Indices of Changes in Child and Youth Well-Being in the San Francisco Bay Area and the State of California, 1995-2005..
          • manual
          • Palo Alto, CA: Lucile Packard Foundation for Children’s Health..
          • KC Land.
          • (2008).
          • Are Your Children Doing Better Than You?.
          • Pediatrics for Parents
          • ,
          • 24
          • (9)
          • ,
          • 10-11.
          • KC Land.
          • (2008).
          • The 2008 Foundation for Child Development Child and Youth Well-Being Index (CWI) Report, Including An Update of the CWI for the Years 1975-2006, Projections of the CWI for 2007, and A Special Focus Report on an Intergenerational Comparison of Adolescent Well-Being..
          • manual
          • New York: Foundation for Child Development..
          • KC Land.
          • (2008).
          • Special Focus Report: Trends in Infancy/Early Childhood and Middle Childhood Well-Being, 1994-2006.
          • manual
          • New York: Foundation for Child Development..
          • KC Land.
          • (2007).
          • The Foundation for Child Development Index of Child Well-Being (CWI), 1975-2005 with Projections for 2007..
          • manual
          • New York: Foundation for Child Development..
          • KC Land.
          • (2007).
          • Special Focus Report on International Comparisons, The Foundation for Child Development Child and Youth Well-Being Index (CWI) Project..
          • manual
          • New York: Foundation for Child Development..
          • KC Land.
          • (2006).
          • The Foundation for Child Development Index of Child Well-Being (CWI), 1975-2004 with Projections for 2006..
          • manual
          • New York: Foundation for Child Development..
          • KC Land.
          • (2005).
          • The Foundation for Child Development Index of Child Well-Being (CWI), 1975-2003 with Projections for 2004..
          • manual
          • New York: Foundation for Child Development..
          • KC Land.
          • (2004).
          • The Foundation for Child Development Index of Child Well-Being (CWI), 1975-2002, with Projections for 2003..
          • manual
          • New York: Foundation for Child Development..
          • VA Freedman, E Crimmins, RF Schoeni, B Spillman, H Aykan, E Kramarow, K Land, J Lubitz, K Manton, LG Martin and TW Diane Shinberg.
          • (2003).
          • Resolving Inconsistencies in Old-Age Disability Trends: Report from a Technical Working Group.
          • manual
          • North Wales, PA: Polisher Research Institute, Madlyn and Leonard Abramson Center for Jewish Life.
          • KC Land, ME Ezell and JR wILLIams.
          • (1998).
          • Alternatives to Detention (Incarceration) Evaluation Project: Statistical Analyses of the 1997 Calendar Year Cases with Comparisons to the 1996 and 1995 Cases: Final Report.
          • manual
          • ,
          • 75 pages.
          • KC Land.
          • (1991).
          • Comments in “On the Abolition of Sociology Departments: A Panel for Chairpersons.
          • The Southern Sociologist
          • ,
          • 23
          • (Fall)
          • ,
          • 9-13.
          • KC Land and PL McCall.
          • (1991).
          • The North Carolina Court Counselor's Intensive Supervision Experiment. Phase III: Final Evaluation Report.
          • manual
          • ,
          • 32 pages.
          • KC Land, PL McCall and JR Williams.
          • (1990).
          • The North Carolina Court Counselor's Intensive Supervision Experiment. Phase II: Final Evalulation Report.
          • manual
          • ,
          • 110 pages.
          • KC Land, PL McCall and JR Williams.
          • (1989).
          • The North Carolina Court Counselor's Intensive Protective Supervision Project, 1987-89: Final Evaluation Report.
          • manual
          • ,
          • 74 pages.
          • SH Schneider and KC Land.
          • (1987).
          • Editorial.
          • Climatic Change
          • ,
          • 11
          • (1-2)
          • ,
          • 1-3.
          • [web]
          • ML Levin, KC Land, DL Poston and HH Winsborough.
          • (1979).
          • Public Use Samples and Microdata: Problems and Recommendations.
          • manual
          • Current Issues in Population Statistics: Reports Prepared by the Subcommittees of the Committee on Population Statistics
          • ,
          • 9-15.
          • Population Association of America.
          • KC Land, JH Lane, Jr. and RC Rockwell.
          • (1966).
          • The Social Backgrounds of Head Start Participants: Austin, Texas, Summer, 1965.
          • manual
          • ,
          • 27 pages.
          • Univesity of Texas.
  • ict background